Module 18: The Digestive System

Lesson 4: The Stomach

Dạ Dày

Nội dung bài học:
Mỗi bài học (lesson) bao gồm 4 phần chính: Thuật ngữ, Luyện Đọc, Luyện Nghe, và Bàn Luận.
Sử dụng tính năng:
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Dưới đây là danh sách những thuật ngữ Y khoa của module The Digestive System.
Khái quát được số lượng thuật ngữ sẽ xuất hiện trong bài đọc và nghe sẽ giúp bạn thoải mái tiêu thụ nội dung hơn. Sau khi hoàn thành nội dung đọc và nghe, bạn hãy quay lại đây và luyện tập (practice) để quen dần các thuật ngữ này. Đừng ép bản thân phải nhớ các thuật ngữ này vội vì bạn sẽ gặp và ôn lại danh sách này trong những bài học (lesson) khác của cùng một module.

Medical Terminology: The Digestive System

passage of digested products from the intestinal lumen through mucosal cells and into the bloodstream or lacteals
accessory digestive organ
includes teeth, tongue, salivary glands, gallbladder, liver, and pancreas
accessory duct
(also, duct of Santorini) duct that runs from the pancreas into the duodenum
cluster of glandular epithelial cells in the pancreas that secretes pancreatic juice in the pancreas
alimentary canal
continuous muscular digestive tube that extends from the mouth to the anus
brush border enzyme that acts on proteins
anal canal
final segment of the large intestine
anal column
long fold of mucosa in the anal canal
anal sinus
recess between anal columns
(vermiform appendix) coiled tube attached to the cecum
ascending colon
first region of the colon
bacterial flora
bacteria in the large intestine
alkaline solution produced by the liver and important for the emulsification of lipids
bile canaliculus
small duct between hepatocytes that collects bile
main bile pigment, which is responsible for the brown color of feces
mid-portion of the stomach
mass of chewed food
brush border
fuzzy appearance of the small intestinal mucosa created by microvilli
(also, cardiac region) part of the stomach surrounding the cardiac orifice (esophageal hiatus)
pouch forming the beginning of the large intestine
bone-like tissue covering the root of a tooth
central vein
vein that receives blood from hepatic sinusoids
cephalic phase
(also, reflex phase) initial phase of gastric secretion that occurs before food enters the stomach
chemical digestion
enzymatic breakdown of food
chief cell
gastric gland cell that secretes pepsinogen
large lipid-transport compound made up of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins
soupy liquid created when food is mixed with digestive juices
circular fold
(also, plica circulare) deep fold in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine
part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum
common bile duct
structure formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the gallbladder’s cystic duct
common hepatic duct
duct formed by the merger of the two hepatic ducts
portion of tooth visible superior to the gum line
(also, canine) pointed tooth used for tearing and shredding food
cystic duct
duct through which bile drains and enters the gallbladder
deciduous tooth
one of 20 “baby teeth”
elimination of undigested substances from the body in the form of feces
three-stage process of swallowing
bone-like tissue immediately deep to the enamel of the crown or cementum of the root of a tooth
set of teeth
pancreatic enzyme that digests DNA
descending colon
part of the colon between the transverse colon and the sigmoid colon
brush border enzyme that acts on proteins
duodenal gland
(also, Brunner’s gland) mucous-secreting gland in the duodenal submucosa
first part of the small intestine, which starts at the pyloric sphincter and ends at the jejunum
covering of the dentin of the crown of a tooth
enteroendocrine cell
gastric gland cell that releases hormones
enterohepatic circulation
recycling mechanism that conserves bile salts
intestinal brush-border enzyme that activates trypsinogen to trypsin
epiploic appendage
small sac of fat-filled visceral peritoneum attached to teniae coli
muscular tube that runs from the pharynx to the stomach
external anal sphincter
voluntary skeletal muscle sphincter in the anal canal
opening between the oral cavity and the oropharynx
semisolid waste product of digestion
gas in the intestine
dome-shaped region of the stomach above and to the left of the cardia
G cell
gastrin-secreting enteroendocrine cell
accessory digestive organ that stores and concentrates bile
gastric emptying
process by which mixing waves gradually cause the release of chyme into the duodenum
gastric gland
gland in the stomach mucosal epithelium that produces gastric juice
gastric phase
phase of gastric secretion that begins when food enters the stomach
gastric pit
narrow channel formed by the epithelial lining of the stomach mucosa
peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of hydrochloric acid and gut motility
gastrocolic reflex
propulsive movement in the colon activated by the presence of food in the stomach
gastroileal reflex
long reflex that increases the strength of segmentation in the ileum
haustral contraction
slow segmentation in the large intestine
small pouch in the colon created by tonic contractions of teniae coli
hepatic artery
artery that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver
hepatic lobule
hexagonal-shaped structure composed of hepatocytes that radiate outward from a central vein
hepatic portal vein
vein that supplies deoxygenated nutrient-rich blood to the liver
hepatic sinusoid
blood capillaries between rows of hepatocytes that receive blood from the hepatic portal vein and the branches of the hepatic artery
hepatic vein
vein that drains into the inferior vena cava
major functional cells of the liver
hepatopancreatic ampulla
(also, ampulla of Vater) bulb-like point in the wall of the duodenum where the bile duct and main pancreatic duct unite
hepatopancreatic sphincter
(also, sphincter of Oddi) sphincter regulating the flow of bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum
hydrochloric acid (HCl)
digestive acid secreted by parietal cells in the stomach
ileocecal sphincter
sphincter located where the small intestine joins with the large intestine
end of the small intestine between the jejunum and the large intestine
midline, chisel-shaped tooth used for cutting into food
taking food into the GI tract through the mouth
internal anal sphincter
involuntary smooth muscle sphincter in the anal canal
intestinal gland
(also, crypt of Lieberkühn) gland in the small intestinal mucosa that secretes intestinal juice
intestinal juice
mixture of water and mucus that helps absorb nutrients from chyme
intestinal phase
phase of gastric secretion that begins when chyme enters the intestine
intrinsic factor
glycoprotein required for vitamin B12 absorption in the small intestine
middle part of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum
labial frenulum
midline mucous membrane fold that attaches the inner surface of the lips to the gums
brush border enzyme that breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose
lymphatic capillary in the villi
large intestine
terminal portion of the alimentary canal
part of the pharynx that functions in respiration and digestion
left colic flexure
(also, splenic flexure) point where the transverse colon curves below the inferior end of the spleen
lingual frenulum
mucous membrane fold that attaches the bottom of the tongue to the floor of the mouth
lingual lipase
digestive enzyme from glands in the tongue that acts on triglycerides
lipoprotein lipase
enzyme that breaks down triglycerides in chylomicrons into fatty acids and monoglycerides
largest gland in the body whose main digestive function is the production of bile
lower esophageal sphincter
smooth muscle sphincter that regulates food movement from the esophagus to the stomach
main pancreatic duct
(also, duct of Wirsung) duct through which pancreatic juice drains from the pancreas
major duodenal papilla
point at which the hepatopancreatic ampulla opens into the duodenum
brush border enzyme that breaks down maltose and maltotriose into two and three molecules of glucose, respectively
mass movement
long, slow, peristaltic wave in the large intestine
mechanical digestion
chewing, mixing, and segmentation that prepares food for chemical digestion
mesentery of the appendix
tiny lipid-transport compound composed of bile salts and phospholipids with a fatty acid and monoacylglyceride core
small projection of the plasma membrane of the absorptive cells of the small intestinal mucosa
migrating motility complex
form of peristalsis in the small intestine
mixing wave
unique type of peristalsis that occurs in the stomach
tooth used for crushing and grinding food
hormone that initiates migrating motility complexes
movement of food through the GI tract
innermost lining of the alimentary canal
mucosal barrier
protective barrier that prevents gastric juice from destroying the stomach itself
mucous neck cell
gastric gland cell that secretes a uniquely acidic mucus
muscle (skeletal or smooth) layer of the alimentary canal wall
myenteric plexus
(plexus of Auerbach) major nerve supply to alimentary canal wall; controls motility
brush border enzyme that digests nucleotides
oral cavity
(also, buccal cavity) mouth
oral vestibule
part of the mouth bounded externally by the cheeks and lips, and internally by the gums and teeth
part of the pharynx continuous with the oral cavity that functions in respiration and digestion
palatoglossal arch
muscular fold that extends from the lateral side of the soft palate to the base of the tongue
palatopharyngeal arch
muscular fold that extends from the lateral side of the soft palate to the side of the pharynx
accessory digestive organ that secretes pancreatic juice
pancreatic amylase
enzyme secreted by the pancreas that completes the chemical digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestine
pancreatic juice
secretion of the pancreas containing digestive enzymes and bicarbonate
pancreatic lipase
enzyme secreted by the pancreas that participates in lipid digestion
pancreatic nuclease
enzyme secreted by the pancreas that participates in nucleic acid digestion
parietal cell
gastric gland cell that secretes hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
parotid gland
one of a pair of major salivary glands located inferior and anterior to the ears
pectinate line
horizontal line that runs like a ring, perpendicular to the inferior margins of the anal sinuses
inactive form of pepsin
muscular contractions and relaxations that propel food through the GI tract
permanent tooth
one of 32 adult teeth
brush border enzyme that digests nucleotides
porta hepatis
“gateway to the liver” where the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein enter the liver
portal triad
bile duct, hepatic artery branch, and hepatic portal vein branch
(also, bicuspid) transitional tooth used for mastication, crushing, and grinding food
voluntary process of swallowing and the involuntary process of peristalsis that moves food through the digestive tract
pulp cavity
deepest portion of a tooth, containing nerve endings and blood vessels
pyloric antrum
wider, more superior part of the pylorus
pyloric canal
narrow, more inferior part of the pylorus
pyloric sphincter
sphincter that controls stomach emptying
lower, funnel-shaped part of the stomach that is continuous with the duodenum
rectal valve
one of three transverse folds in the rectum where feces is separated from flatus
part of the large intestine between the sigmoid colon and anal canal
reticuloendothelial cell
(also, Kupffer cell) phagocyte in hepatic sinusoids that filters out material from venous blood from the alimentary canal
located posterior to the peritoneum
pancreatic enzyme that digests RNA
right colic flexure
(also, hepatic flexure) point, at the inferior surface of the liver, where the ascending colon turns abruptly to the left
portion of a tooth embedded in the alveolar processes beneath the gum line
fold of alimentary canal mucosa and submucosa in the empty stomach and other organs
saccharolytic fermentation
anaerobic decomposition of carbohydrates
aqueous solution of proteins and ions secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands
salivary amylase
digestive enzyme in saliva that acts on starch
salivary gland
an exocrine gland that secretes a digestive fluid called saliva
secretion of saliva
alternating contractions and relaxations of non-adjacent segments of the intestine that move food forward and backward, breaking it apart and mixing it with digestive juices
outermost layer of the alimentary canal wall present in regions within the abdominal cavity
sigmoid colon
end portion of the colon, which terminates at the rectum
small intestine
section of the alimentary canal where most digestion and absorption occurs
soft palate
posterior region of the bottom portion of the nasal cavity that consists of skeletal muscle
alimentary canal organ that contributes to chemical and mechanical digestion of food from the esophagus before releasing it, as chyme, to the small intestine
sublingual gland
one of a pair of major salivary glands located beneath the tongue
submandibular gland
one of a pair of major salivary glands located in the floor of the mouth
layer of dense connective tissue in the alimentary canal wall that binds the overlying mucosa to the underlying muscularis
submucosal plexus
(plexus of Meissner) nerve supply that regulates activity of glands and smooth muscle
brush border enzyme that breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructose
tenia coli
one of three smooth muscle bands that make up the longitudinal muscle layer of the muscularis in all of the large intestine except the terminal end
accessory digestive organ of the mouth, the bulk of which is composed of skeletal muscle
transverse colon
part of the colon between the ascending colon and the descending colon
upper esophageal sphincter
skeletal muscle sphincter that regulates food movement from the pharynx to the esophagus
Valsalva’s maneuver
voluntary contraction of the diaphragm and abdominal wall muscles and closing of the glottis, which increases intra-abdominal pressure and facilitates defecation
projection of the mucosa of the small intestine
voluntary phase
initial phase of deglutition, in which the bolus moves from the mouth to the oropharynx
breakdown product of starch
brush border enzyme that acts on α-dextrins
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Dưới đây là các bài văn nằm ở bên trái. Ở bên phải là các bài luyện tập (practice) để đánh giá khả năng đọc hiểu của bạn. Sẽ khó khăn trong thời gian đầu nếu vốn từ vựng của bạn còn hạn chế, đặc biệt là từ vựng Y khoa. Hãy kiên nhẫn và đọc nhiều nhất có kể, lượng kiến thức tích tụ dần sẽ giúp bạn đọc thoải mái hơn.
Although a minimal amount of carbohydrate digestion occurs in the mouth, chemical digestion really gets underway in the stomach. An expansion of the alimentary canal that lies immediately inferior to the esophagus, the stomach links the esophagus to the first part of the small intestine (the duodenum) and is relatively fixed in place at its esophageal and duodenal ends. In between, however, it can be a highly active structure, contracting and continually changing position and size. These contractions provide mechanical assistance to digestion. The empty stomach is only about the size of your fist, but can stretch to hold as much as 4 liters of food and fluid, or more than 75 times its empty volume, and then return to its resting size when empty. Although you might think that the size of a person’s stomach is related to how much food that individual consumes, body weight does not correlate with stomach size. Rather, when you eat greater quantities of food—such as at holiday dinner—you stretch the stomach more than when you eat less.

Popular culture tends to refer to the stomach as the location where all digestion takes place. Of course, this is not true. An important function of the stomach is to serve as a temporary holding chamber. You can ingest a meal far more quickly than it can be digested and absorbed by the small intestine. Thus, the stomach holds food and parses only small amounts into the small intestine at a time. Foods are not processed in the order they are eaten; rather, they are mixed together with digestive juices in the stomach until they are converted into chyme, which is released into the small intestine.

As you will see in the sections that follow, the stomach plays several important roles in chemical digestion, including the continued digestion of carbohydrates and the initial digestion of proteins and triglycerides. Little if any nutrient absorption occurs in the stomach, with the exception of the negligible amount of nutrients in alcohol.
There are four main regions in the stomach: the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus (Figure 1). The cardia (or cardiac region) is the point where the esophagus connects to the stomach and through which food passes into the stomach. Located inferior to the diaphragm, above and to the left of the cardia, is the dome-shaped fundus. Below the fundus is the body, the main part of the stomach. The funnel-shaped pylorus connects the stomach to the duodenum. The wider end of the funnel, the pyloric antrum, connects to the body of the stomach. The narrower end is called the pyloric canal, which connects to the duodenum. The smooth muscle pyloric sphincter is located at this latter point of connection and controls stomach emptying. In the absence of food, the stomach deflates inward, and its mucosa and submucosa fall into a large fold called a ruga.

The convex lateral surface of the stomach is called the greater curvature; the concave medial border is the lesser curvature. The stomach is held in place by the lesser omentum, which extends from the liver to the lesser curvature, and the greater omentum, which runs from the greater curvature to the posterior abdominal wall.
The wall of the stomach is made of the same four layers as most of the rest of the alimentary canal, but with adaptations to the mucosa and muscularis for the unique functions of this organ. In addition to the typical circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers, the muscularis has an inner oblique smooth muscle layer (Figure 2). As a result, in addition to moving food through the canal, the stomach can vigorously churn food, mechanically breaking it down into smaller particles.

The stomach mucosa’s epithelial lining consists only of surface mucus cells, which secrete a protective coat of alkaline mucus. A vast number of gastric pits dot the surface of the epithelium, giving it the appearance of a well-used pincushion, and mark the entry to each gastric gland, which secretes a complex digestive fluid referred to as gastric juice.

Although the walls of the gastric pits are made up primarily of mucus cells, the gastric glands are made up of different types of cells. The glands of the cardia and pylorus are composed primarily of mucus-secreting cells. Cells that make up the pyloric antrum secrete mucus and a number of hormones, including the majority of the stimulatory hormone, gastrin. The much larger glands of the fundus and body of the stomach, the site of most chemical digestion, produce most of the gastric secretions. These glands are made up of a variety of secretory cells. These include parietal cells, chief cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells.

Parietal cells—Located primarily in the middle region of the gastric glands are parietal cells, which are among the most highly differentiated of the body’s epithelial cells. These relatively large cells produce both hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor. HCl is responsible for the high acidity (pH 1.5 to 3.5) of the stomach contents and is needed to activate the protein-digesting enzyme, pepsin. The acidity also kills much of the bacteria you ingest with food and helps to denature proteins, making them more available for enzymatic digestion. Intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.

Chief cells—Located primarily in the basal regions of gastric glands are chief cells, which secrete pepsinogen, the inactive proenzyme form of pepsin. HCl is necessary for the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin.

Mucous neck cells—Gastric glands in the upper part of the stomach contain mucous neck cells that secrete thin, acidic mucus that is much different from the mucus secreted by the goblet cells of the surface epithelium. The role of this mucus is not currently known.

Enteroendocrine cells—Finally, enteroendocrine cells found in the gastric glands secrete various hormones into the interstitial fluid of the lamina propria. These include gastrin, which is released mainly by enteroendocrine G cells.

Table 1 describes the digestive functions of important hormones secreted by the stomach.
The secretion of gastric juice is controlled by both nerves and hormones. Stimuli in the brain, stomach, and small intestine activate or inhibit gastric juice production. This is why the three phases of gastric secretion are called the cephalic, gastric, and intestinal phases (Figure 3). However, once gastric secretion begins, all three phases can occur simultaneously.

The cephalic phase (reflex phase) of gastric secretion, which is relatively brief, takes place before food enters the stomach. The smell, taste, sight, or thought of food triggers this phase. For example, when you bring a piece of sushi to your lips, impulses from receptors in your taste buds or the nose are relayed to your brain, which returns signals that increase gastric secretion to prepare your stomach for digestion. This enhanced secretion is a conditioned reflex, meaning it occurs only if you like or want a particular food. Depression and loss of appetite can suppress the cephalic reflex.

The gastric phase of secretion lasts 3 to 4 hours, and is set in motion by local neural and hormonal mechanisms triggered by the entry of food into the stomach. For example, when your sushi reaches the stomach, it creates distention that activates the stretch receptors. This stimulates parasympathetic neurons to release acetylcholine, which then provokes increased secretion of gastric juice. Partially digested proteins, caffeine, and rising pH stimulate the release of gastrin from enteroendocrine G cells, which in turn induces parietal cells to increase their production of HCl, which is needed to create an acidic environment for the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin, and protein digestion. Additionally, the release of gastrin activates vigorous smooth muscle contractions. However, it should be noted that the stomach does have a natural means of avoiding excessive acid secretion and potential heartburn. Whenever pH levels drop too low, cells in the stomach react by suspending HCl secretion and increasing mucous secretions.

The intestinal phase of gastric secretion has both excitatory and inhibitory elements. The duodenum has a major role in regulating the stomach and its emptying. When partially digested food fills the duodenum, intestinal mucosal cells release a hormone called intestinal (enteric) gastrin, which further excites gastric juice secretion. This stimulatory activity is brief, however, because when the intestine distends with chyme, the enterogastric reflex inhibits secretion. One of the effects of this reflex is to close the pyloric sphincter, which blocks additional chyme from entering the duodenum.
The mucosa of the stomach is exposed to the highly corrosive acidity of gastric juice. Gastric enzymes that can digest protein can also digest the stomach itself. The stomach is protected from self-digestion by the mucosal barrier. This barrier has several components. First, the stomach wall is covered by a thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus. This mucus forms a physical barrier, and its bicarbonate ions neutralize acid. Second, the epithelial cells of the stomach’s mucosa meet at tight junctions, which block gastric juice from penetrating the underlying tissue layers. Finally, stem cells located where gastric glands join the gastric pits quickly replace damaged epithelial mucosal cells, when the epithelial cells are shed. In fact, the surface epithelium of the stomach is completely replaced every 3 to 6 days.
The stomach participates in virtually all the digestive activities with the exception of ingestion and defecation. Although almost all absorption takes place in the small intestine, the stomach does absorb some drugs, such as alcohol and aspirin.

A. Mechanical Digestion

Within a few moments after food enters your stomach, mixing waves begin to occur at intervals of approximately 20 seconds. A mixing wave is a unique type of peristalsis that mixes and softens the food with gastric juices to create chyme. The initial mixing waves are relatively gentle, but these are followed by more intense waves, starting at the body of the stomach and increasing in force as they reach the pylorus. It is fair to say that long before your sushi exits through the pyloric sphincter, it bears little resemblance to the sushi you ate.

The pylorus, which holds around 30 mL (1 fluid ounce) of chyme, acts as a filter, permitting only liquids and small food particles to pass through the mostly, but not fully, closed pyloric sphincter. In a process called gastric emptying, rhythmic mixing waves force about 3 mL of chyme at a time through the pyloric sphincter and into the duodenum. Release of a greater amount of chyme at one time would overwhelm the capacity of the small intestine to handle it. The rest of the chyme is pushed back into the body of the stomach, where it continues mixing. This process is repeated when the next mixing waves force more chyme into the duodenum.

Gastric emptying is regulated by both the stomach and the duodenum. The presence of chyme in the duodenum activates receptors that inhibit gastric secretion. This prevents additional chyme from being released by the stomach before the duodenum is ready to process it.

B. Chemical Digestion

The fundus plays an important role, because it stores both undigested food and gases that are released during the process of chemical digestion. Food may sit in the fundus of the stomach for a while before being mixed with the chyme. While the food is in the fundus, the digestive activities of salivary amylase continue until the food begins mixing with the acidic chyme. Ultimately, mixing waves incorporate this food with the chyme, the acidity of which inactivates salivary amylase and activates lingual lipase. Lingual lipase then begins breaking down triglycerides into free fatty acids, and mono- and diglycerides.

The breakdown of protein begins in the stomach through the actions of HCl and the enzyme pepsin.

Its numerous digestive functions notwithstanding, there is only one stomach function necessary to life: the production of intrinsic factor. The intestinal absorption of vitamin B12, which is necessary for both the production of mature red blood cells and normal neurological functioning, cannot occur without intrinsic factor. People who undergo total gastrectomy (stomach removal)—for life-threatening stomach cancer, for example—can survive with minimal digestive dysfunction if they receive vitamin B12 injections.

The contents of the stomach are completely emptied into the duodenum within 2 to 4 hours after you eat a meal. Different types of food take different amounts of time to process. Foods heavy in carbohydrates empty fastest, followed by high-protein foods. Meals with a high triglyceride content remain in the stomach the longest. Since enzymes in the small intestine digest fats slowly, food can stay in the stomach for 6 hours or longer when the duodenum is processing fatty chyme. However, note that this is still a fraction of the 24 to 72 hours that full digestion typically takes from start to finish.

OpenStax. (2022). Anatomy and Physiology 2e. Rice University. Retrieved June 15, 2023. ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-06-7 (Hardcover) ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-05-0 (Paperback) ISBN-13: 978-1-951693-42-8 (Digital). License: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Access for free at

The stomach has four major regions: the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. The addition of an inner oblique smooth muscle layer gives the muscularis the ability to vigorously churn and mix food.

The stomach wall is adapted for the functions of the stomach. In the epithelium, gastric pits lead to gastric glands that secrete gastric juice. The gastric glands (one gland is shown enlarged on the right) contain different types of cells that secrete a variety of enzymes, including hydrochloride acid, which activates the protein-digesting enzyme pepsin.

HormoneProduction siteProduction stimulusTarget organAction
GastrinStomach mucosa, mainly G cells of the pyloric antrumPresence of peptides and amino acids in stomachStomachIncreases secretion by gastric glands; promotes gastric emptying
GastrinStomach mucosa, mainly G cells of the pyloric antrumPresence of peptides and amino acids in stomachSmall intestinePromotes intestinal muscle contraction
GastrinStomach mucosa, mainly G cells of the pyloric antrumPresence of peptides and amino acids in stomachIleocecal valveRelaxes valve
GastrinStomach mucosa, mainly G cells of the pyloric antrumPresence of peptides and amino acids in stomachLarge intestineTriggers mass movements
GhrelinStomach mucosa, mainly fundusFasting state (levels increase just prior to meals)HypothalamusRegulates food intake, primarily by stimulating hunger and satiety
HistamineStomach mucosaPresence of food in the stomachStomachStimulates parietal cells to release HCl
SerotoninStomach mucosaPresence of food in the stomachStomachContracts stomach muscle
SomatostatinMucosa of stomach, especially pyloric antrum; also duodenumPresence of food in the stomach; sympathetic axon stimulationStomachRestricts all gastric secretions, gastric motility, and emptying
SomatostatinMucosa of stomach, especially pyloric antrum; also duodenumPresence of food in the stomach; sympathetic axon stimulationPancreasRestricts pancreatic secretions
SomatostatinMucosa of stomach, especially pyloric antrum; also duodenumPresence of food in the stomach; sympathetic axon stimulationSmall intestineReduces intestinal absorption by reducing blood flow

Gastric secretion occurs in three phases: cephalic, gastric, and intestinal. During each phase, the secretion of gastric juice can be stimulated or inhibited.

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  1. The stomach serves as a temporary storage chamber and initiates chemical digestion processes.
  2. Comprising four main regions—the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus—the stomach undergoes dynamic contractions to mechanically assist digestion.
  3. Its mucosa contains various gland types, including parietal cells producing hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, and chief cells secreting pepsinogen.
  4. Gastric secretion is regulated by neural and hormonal stimuli, occurring in cephalic, gastric, and intestinal phases.
  5. The stomach’s mucosal barrier safeguards it from self-digestion, replaced every few days.
  6. Mechanical digestion involves mixing waves to form chyme, which is then released gradually into the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter.
  7. Chemical digestion begins with hydrochloric acid and pepsin, while the fundus stores food and releases gases.
  8. The stomach’s primary function, intrinsic factor production, is essential for vitamin B12 absorption.
  9. Gastric emptying varies based on food type, with carbohydrates processing fastest and fatty meals remaining longer.
  10. Overall, the stomach’s complex functions contribute significantly to the digestive process, facilitating nutrient breakdown and absorption essential for bodily functions.
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