Module 18: The Digestive System

Lesson 5: The Small Intestines

Ruột Non

Nội dung bài học:
Mỗi bài học (lesson) bao gồm 4 phần chính: Thuật ngữ, Luyện Đọc, Luyện Nghe, và Bàn Luận.
Sử dụng tính năng:
Bôi hoặc nhấp đôi vào từ, sau đó ấn vào biểu tượng để tra nghĩa từ đó. Khi bạn đưa chuột đến câu (hoặc khi nhấp vào câu trên màn hình điện thoại), gợi ý về cách hiểu câu đó sẽ hiện lên. Cuối cùng, bạn có thể đánh dấu hoàn thành toàn bộ bài học bằng cách ấn vào nút “Hoàn Thành” ở cuối trang.
Đăng ký và đăng nhập
Bạn cần đăng ký và đăng nhập vào tài khoản để lưu quá trình học.
Dưới đây là danh sách những thuật ngữ Y khoa của module The Digestive System.
Khái quát được số lượng thuật ngữ sẽ xuất hiện trong bài đọc và nghe sẽ giúp bạn thoải mái tiêu thụ nội dung hơn. Sau khi hoàn thành nội dung đọc và nghe, bạn hãy quay lại đây và luyện tập (practice) để quen dần các thuật ngữ này. Đừng ép bản thân phải nhớ các thuật ngữ này vội vì bạn sẽ gặp và ôn lại danh sách này trong những bài học (lesson) khác của cùng một module.

Medical Terminology: The Digestive System

passage of digested products from the intestinal lumen through mucosal cells and into the bloodstream or lacteals
accessory digestive organ
includes teeth, tongue, salivary glands, gallbladder, liver, and pancreas
accessory duct
(also, duct of Santorini) duct that runs from the pancreas into the duodenum
cluster of glandular epithelial cells in the pancreas that secretes pancreatic juice in the pancreas
alimentary canal
continuous muscular digestive tube that extends from the mouth to the anus
brush border enzyme that acts on proteins
anal canal
final segment of the large intestine
anal column
long fold of mucosa in the anal canal
anal sinus
recess between anal columns
(vermiform appendix) coiled tube attached to the cecum
ascending colon
first region of the colon
bacterial flora
bacteria in the large intestine
alkaline solution produced by the liver and important for the emulsification of lipids
bile canaliculus
small duct between hepatocytes that collects bile
main bile pigment, which is responsible for the brown color of feces
mid-portion of the stomach
mass of chewed food
brush border
fuzzy appearance of the small intestinal mucosa created by microvilli
(also, cardiac region) part of the stomach surrounding the cardiac orifice (esophageal hiatus)
pouch forming the beginning of the large intestine
bone-like tissue covering the root of a tooth
central vein
vein that receives blood from hepatic sinusoids
cephalic phase
(also, reflex phase) initial phase of gastric secretion that occurs before food enters the stomach
chemical digestion
enzymatic breakdown of food
chief cell
gastric gland cell that secretes pepsinogen
large lipid-transport compound made up of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins
soupy liquid created when food is mixed with digestive juices
circular fold
(also, plica circulare) deep fold in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine
part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum
common bile duct
structure formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the gallbladder’s cystic duct
common hepatic duct
duct formed by the merger of the two hepatic ducts
portion of tooth visible superior to the gum line
(also, canine) pointed tooth used for tearing and shredding food
cystic duct
duct through which bile drains and enters the gallbladder
deciduous tooth
one of 20 “baby teeth”
elimination of undigested substances from the body in the form of feces
three-stage process of swallowing
bone-like tissue immediately deep to the enamel of the crown or cementum of the root of a tooth
set of teeth
pancreatic enzyme that digests DNA
descending colon
part of the colon between the transverse colon and the sigmoid colon
brush border enzyme that acts on proteins
duodenal gland
(also, Brunner’s gland) mucous-secreting gland in the duodenal submucosa
first part of the small intestine, which starts at the pyloric sphincter and ends at the jejunum
covering of the dentin of the crown of a tooth
enteroendocrine cell
gastric gland cell that releases hormones
enterohepatic circulation
recycling mechanism that conserves bile salts
intestinal brush-border enzyme that activates trypsinogen to trypsin
epiploic appendage
small sac of fat-filled visceral peritoneum attached to teniae coli
muscular tube that runs from the pharynx to the stomach
external anal sphincter
voluntary skeletal muscle sphincter in the anal canal
opening between the oral cavity and the oropharynx
semisolid waste product of digestion
gas in the intestine
dome-shaped region of the stomach above and to the left of the cardia
G cell
gastrin-secreting enteroendocrine cell
accessory digestive organ that stores and concentrates bile
gastric emptying
process by which mixing waves gradually cause the release of chyme into the duodenum
gastric gland
gland in the stomach mucosal epithelium that produces gastric juice
gastric phase
phase of gastric secretion that begins when food enters the stomach
gastric pit
narrow channel formed by the epithelial lining of the stomach mucosa
peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of hydrochloric acid and gut motility
gastrocolic reflex
propulsive movement in the colon activated by the presence of food in the stomach
gastroileal reflex
long reflex that increases the strength of segmentation in the ileum
haustral contraction
slow segmentation in the large intestine
small pouch in the colon created by tonic contractions of teniae coli
hepatic artery
artery that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver
hepatic lobule
hexagonal-shaped structure composed of hepatocytes that radiate outward from a central vein
hepatic portal vein
vein that supplies deoxygenated nutrient-rich blood to the liver
hepatic sinusoid
blood capillaries between rows of hepatocytes that receive blood from the hepatic portal vein and the branches of the hepatic artery
hepatic vein
vein that drains into the inferior vena cava
major functional cells of the liver
hepatopancreatic ampulla
(also, ampulla of Vater) bulb-like point in the wall of the duodenum where the bile duct and main pancreatic duct unite
hepatopancreatic sphincter
(also, sphincter of Oddi) sphincter regulating the flow of bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum
hydrochloric acid (HCl)
digestive acid secreted by parietal cells in the stomach
ileocecal sphincter
sphincter located where the small intestine joins with the large intestine
end of the small intestine between the jejunum and the large intestine
midline, chisel-shaped tooth used for cutting into food
taking food into the GI tract through the mouth
internal anal sphincter
involuntary smooth muscle sphincter in the anal canal
intestinal gland
(also, crypt of Lieberkühn) gland in the small intestinal mucosa that secretes intestinal juice
intestinal juice
mixture of water and mucus that helps absorb nutrients from chyme
intestinal phase
phase of gastric secretion that begins when chyme enters the intestine
intrinsic factor
glycoprotein required for vitamin B12 absorption in the small intestine
middle part of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum
labial frenulum
midline mucous membrane fold that attaches the inner surface of the lips to the gums
brush border enzyme that breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose
lymphatic capillary in the villi
large intestine
terminal portion of the alimentary canal
part of the pharynx that functions in respiration and digestion
left colic flexure
(also, splenic flexure) point where the transverse colon curves below the inferior end of the spleen
lingual frenulum
mucous membrane fold that attaches the bottom of the tongue to the floor of the mouth
lingual lipase
digestive enzyme from glands in the tongue that acts on triglycerides
lipoprotein lipase
enzyme that breaks down triglycerides in chylomicrons into fatty acids and monoglycerides
largest gland in the body whose main digestive function is the production of bile
lower esophageal sphincter
smooth muscle sphincter that regulates food movement from the esophagus to the stomach
main pancreatic duct
(also, duct of Wirsung) duct through which pancreatic juice drains from the pancreas
major duodenal papilla
point at which the hepatopancreatic ampulla opens into the duodenum
brush border enzyme that breaks down maltose and maltotriose into two and three molecules of glucose, respectively
mass movement
long, slow, peristaltic wave in the large intestine
mechanical digestion
chewing, mixing, and segmentation that prepares food for chemical digestion
mesentery of the appendix
tiny lipid-transport compound composed of bile salts and phospholipids with a fatty acid and monoacylglyceride core
small projection of the plasma membrane of the absorptive cells of the small intestinal mucosa
migrating motility complex
form of peristalsis in the small intestine
mixing wave
unique type of peristalsis that occurs in the stomach
tooth used for crushing and grinding food
hormone that initiates migrating motility complexes
movement of food through the GI tract
innermost lining of the alimentary canal
mucosal barrier
protective barrier that prevents gastric juice from destroying the stomach itself
mucous neck cell
gastric gland cell that secretes a uniquely acidic mucus
muscle (skeletal or smooth) layer of the alimentary canal wall
myenteric plexus
(plexus of Auerbach) major nerve supply to alimentary canal wall; controls motility
brush border enzyme that digests nucleotides
oral cavity
(also, buccal cavity) mouth
oral vestibule
part of the mouth bounded externally by the cheeks and lips, and internally by the gums and teeth
part of the pharynx continuous with the oral cavity that functions in respiration and digestion
palatoglossal arch
muscular fold that extends from the lateral side of the soft palate to the base of the tongue
palatopharyngeal arch
muscular fold that extends from the lateral side of the soft palate to the side of the pharynx
accessory digestive organ that secretes pancreatic juice
pancreatic amylase
enzyme secreted by the pancreas that completes the chemical digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestine
pancreatic juice
secretion of the pancreas containing digestive enzymes and bicarbonate
pancreatic lipase
enzyme secreted by the pancreas that participates in lipid digestion
pancreatic nuclease
enzyme secreted by the pancreas that participates in nucleic acid digestion
parietal cell
gastric gland cell that secretes hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
parotid gland
one of a pair of major salivary glands located inferior and anterior to the ears
pectinate line
horizontal line that runs like a ring, perpendicular to the inferior margins of the anal sinuses
inactive form of pepsin
muscular contractions and relaxations that propel food through the GI tract
permanent tooth
one of 32 adult teeth
brush border enzyme that digests nucleotides
porta hepatis
“gateway to the liver” where the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein enter the liver
portal triad
bile duct, hepatic artery branch, and hepatic portal vein branch
(also, bicuspid) transitional tooth used for mastication, crushing, and grinding food
voluntary process of swallowing and the involuntary process of peristalsis that moves food through the digestive tract
pulp cavity
deepest portion of a tooth, containing nerve endings and blood vessels
pyloric antrum
wider, more superior part of the pylorus
pyloric canal
narrow, more inferior part of the pylorus
pyloric sphincter
sphincter that controls stomach emptying
lower, funnel-shaped part of the stomach that is continuous with the duodenum
rectal valve
one of three transverse folds in the rectum where feces is separated from flatus
part of the large intestine between the sigmoid colon and anal canal
reticuloendothelial cell
(also, Kupffer cell) phagocyte in hepatic sinusoids that filters out material from venous blood from the alimentary canal
located posterior to the peritoneum
pancreatic enzyme that digests RNA
right colic flexure
(also, hepatic flexure) point, at the inferior surface of the liver, where the ascending colon turns abruptly to the left
portion of a tooth embedded in the alveolar processes beneath the gum line
fold of alimentary canal mucosa and submucosa in the empty stomach and other organs
saccharolytic fermentation
anaerobic decomposition of carbohydrates
aqueous solution of proteins and ions secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands
salivary amylase
digestive enzyme in saliva that acts on starch
salivary gland
an exocrine gland that secretes a digestive fluid called saliva
secretion of saliva
alternating contractions and relaxations of non-adjacent segments of the intestine that move food forward and backward, breaking it apart and mixing it with digestive juices
outermost layer of the alimentary canal wall present in regions within the abdominal cavity
sigmoid colon
end portion of the colon, which terminates at the rectum
small intestine
section of the alimentary canal where most digestion and absorption occurs
soft palate
posterior region of the bottom portion of the nasal cavity that consists of skeletal muscle
alimentary canal organ that contributes to chemical and mechanical digestion of food from the esophagus before releasing it, as chyme, to the small intestine
sublingual gland
one of a pair of major salivary glands located beneath the tongue
submandibular gland
one of a pair of major salivary glands located in the floor of the mouth
layer of dense connective tissue in the alimentary canal wall that binds the overlying mucosa to the underlying muscularis
submucosal plexus
(plexus of Meissner) nerve supply that regulates activity of glands and smooth muscle
brush border enzyme that breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructose
tenia coli
one of three smooth muscle bands that make up the longitudinal muscle layer of the muscularis in all of the large intestine except the terminal end
accessory digestive organ of the mouth, the bulk of which is composed of skeletal muscle
transverse colon
part of the colon between the ascending colon and the descending colon
upper esophageal sphincter
skeletal muscle sphincter that regulates food movement from the pharynx to the esophagus
Valsalva’s maneuver
voluntary contraction of the diaphragm and abdominal wall muscles and closing of the glottis, which increases intra-abdominal pressure and facilitates defecation
projection of the mucosa of the small intestine
voluntary phase
initial phase of deglutition, in which the bolus moves from the mouth to the oropharynx
breakdown product of starch
brush border enzyme that acts on α-dextrins
Nội dung này đang được cập nhật.
Dưới đây là các bài văn nằm ở bên trái. Ở bên phải là các bài luyện tập (practice) để đánh giá khả năng đọc hiểu của bạn. Sẽ khó khăn trong thời gian đầu nếu vốn từ vựng của bạn còn hạn chế, đặc biệt là từ vựng Y khoa. Hãy kiên nhẫn và đọc nhiều nhất có kể, lượng kiến thức tích tụ dần sẽ giúp bạn đọc thoải mái hơn.
The word intestine is derived from a Latin root meaning “internal,” and indeed, the two organs together nearly fill the interior of the abdominal cavity. In addition, called the small and large bowel, or colloquially the “guts,” they constitute the greatest mass and length of the alimentary canal and, with the exception of ingestion, perform all digestive system functions.

Chyme released from the stomach enters the small intestine, which is the primary digestive organ in the body. Not only is this where most digestion occurs, it is also where practically all absorption occurs. The longest part of the alimentary canal, the small intestine is about 3.05 meters (10 feet) long in a living person (but about twice as long in a cadaver due to the loss of muscle tone). Since this makes it about five times longer than the large intestine, you might wonder why it is called “small.” In fact, its name derives from its relatively smaller diameter of only about 2.54 cm (1 in), compared with 7.62 cm (3 in) for the large intestine. As we’ll see shortly, in addition to its length, the folds and projections of the lining of the small intestine work to give it an enormous surface area, which is approximately 200 m2, more than 100 times the surface area of your skin. This large surface area is necessary for complex processes of digestion and absorption that occur within it.
The coiled tube of the small intestine is subdivided into three regions. From proximal (at the stomach) to distal, these are the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (Figure 1).

The shortest region is the 25.4-cm (10-in) duodenum, which begins at the pyloric sphincter. Just past the pyloric sphincter, it bends posteriorly behind the peritoneum, becoming retroperitoneal, and then makes a C-shaped curve around the head of the pancreas before ascending anteriorly again to return to the peritoneal cavity and join the jejunum. The duodenum can therefore be subdivided into four segments: the superior, descending, horizontal, and ascending duodenum.

Of particular interest is the hepatopancreatic ampulla (ampulla of Vater). Located in the duodenal wall, the ampulla marks the transition from the anterior portion of the alimentary canal to the mid-region, and is where the bile duct (through which bile passes from the liver) and the main pancreatic duct (through which pancreatic juice passes from the pancreas) join. This ampulla opens into the duodenum at a tiny volcano-shaped structure called the major duodenal papilla. The hepatopancreatic sphincter (sphincter of Oddi) regulates the flow of both bile and pancreatic juice from the ampulla into the duodenum.

The jejunum is about 0.9 meters (3 feet) long (in life) and runs from the duodenum to the ileum. Jejunum means “empty” in Latin and supposedly was so named by the ancient Greeks who noticed it was always empty at death. No clear demarcation exists between the jejunum and the final segment of the small intestine, the ileum.

The ileum is the longest part of the small intestine, measuring about 1.8 meters (6 feet) in length. It is thicker, more vascular, and has more developed mucosal folds than the jejunum. The ileum joins the cecum, the first portion of the large intestine, at the ileocecal sphincter (or valve). The jejunum and ileum are tethered to the posterior abdominal wall by the mesentery. The large intestine frames these three parts of the small intestine.

Parasympathetic nerve fibers from the vagus nerve and sympathetic nerve fibers from the thoracic splanchnic nerve provide extrinsic innervation to the small intestine. The superior mesenteric artery is its main arterial supply. Veins run parallel to the arteries and drain into the superior mesenteric vein. Nutrient-rich blood from the small intestine is then carried to the liver via the hepatic portal vein.
The wall of the small intestine is composed of the same four layers typically present in the alimentary system. However, three features of the mucosa and submucosa are unique. These features, which increase the absorptive surface area of the small intestine more than 600-fold, include circular folds, villi, and microvilli (Figure 2). These adaptations are most abundant in the proximal two-thirds of the small intestine, where the majority of absorption occurs.

A. Circular folds

Also called a plica circulare, a circular fold is a deep ridge in the mucosa and submucosa. Beginning near the proximal part of the duodenum and ending near the middle of the ileum, these folds facilitate absorption. Their shape causes the chyme to spiral, rather than move in a straight line, through the small intestine. Spiraling slows the movement of chyme and provides the time needed for nutrients to be fully absorbed.

B. Villi

Within the circular folds are small (0.5–1 mm long) hairlike vascularized projections called villi (singular = villus) that give the mucosa a furry texture. There are about 20 to 40 villi per square millimeter, increasing the surface area of the epithelium tremendously. The mucosal epithelium, primarily composed of absorptive cells, covers the villi. In addition to muscle and connective tissue to support its structure, each villus contains a capillary bed composed of one arteriole and one venule, as well as a lymphatic capillary called a lacteal. The breakdown products of carbohydrates and proteins (sugars and amino acids) can enter the bloodstream directly, but lipid breakdown products are absorbed by the lacteals and transported to the bloodstream via the lymphatic system.

C. Microvilli

As their name suggests, microvilli (singular = microvillus) are much smaller (1 µm) than villi. They are cylindrical apical surface extensions of the plasma membrane of the mucosa’s epithelial cells, and are supported by microfilaments within those cells. Although their small size makes it difficult to see each microvillus, their combined microscopic appearance suggests a mass of bristles, which is termed the brush border. Fixed to the surface of the microvilli membranes are enzymes that finish digesting carbohydrates and proteins. There are an estimated 200 million microvilli per square millimeter of small intestine, greatly expanding the surface area of the plasma membrane and thus greatly enhancing absorption.

D. Intestinal Glands

In addition to the three specialized absorptive features just discussed, the mucosa between the villi is dotted with deep crevices that each lead into a tubular intestinal gland (crypt of Lieberkühn), which is formed by cells that line the crevices (see Figure 2). These produce intestinal juice, a slightly alkaline (pH 7.4 to 7.8) mixture of water and mucus. Each day, about 0.95 to 1.9 liters (1 to 2 quarts) are secreted in response to the distention of the small intestine or the irritating effects of chyme on the intestinal mucosa.

The submucosa of the duodenum is the only site of the complex mucus-secreting duodenal glands (Brunner’s glands), which produce a bicarbonate-rich alkaline mucus that buffers the acidic chyme as it enters from the stomach.

The roles of the cells in the small intestinal mucosa are detailed in Table 1.

E. Intestinal MALT

The lamina propria of the small intestine mucosa is studded with quite a bit of MALT. In addition to solitary lymphatic nodules, aggregations of intestinal MALT, which are typically referred to as Peyer’s patches, are concentrated in the distal ileum, and serve to keep bacteria from entering the bloodstream. Peyer’s patches are most prominent in young people and become less distinct as you age, which coincides with the general activity of our immune system.
The movement of intestinal smooth muscles includes both segmentation and a form of peristalsis called migrating motility complexes. The kind of peristaltic mixing waves seen in the stomach are not observed here.

If you could see into the small intestine when it was going through segmentation, it would look as if the contents were being shoved incrementally back and forth, as the rings of smooth muscle repeatedly contract and then relax. Segmentation in the small intestine does not force chyme through the tract. Instead, it combines the chyme with digestive juices and pushes food particles against the mucosa to be absorbed. The duodenum is where the most rapid segmentation occurs, at a rate of about 12 times per minute. In the ileum, segmentations are only about eight times per minute (Figure 3).

When most of the chyme has been absorbed, the small intestinal wall becomes less distended. At this point, the localized segmentation process is replaced by transport movements. The duodenal mucosa secretes the hormone motilin, which initiates peristalsis in the form of a migrating motility complex. These complexes, which begin in the duodenum, force chyme through a short section of the small intestine and then stop. The next contraction begins a little bit farther down than the first, forces chyme a bit farther through the small intestine, then stops. These complexes move slowly down the small intestine, forcing chyme on the way, taking around 90 to 120 minutes to finally reach the end of the ileum. At this point, the process is repeated, starting in the duodenum.

The ileocecal valve, a sphincter, is usually in a constricted state, but when motility in the ileum increases, this sphincter relaxes, allowing food residue to enter the first portion of the large intestine, the cecum. Relaxation of the ileocecal sphincter is controlled by both nerves and hormones. First, digestive activity in the stomach provokes the gastroileal reflex, which increases the force of ileal segmentation. Second, the stomach releases the hormone gastrin, which enhances ileal motility, thus relaxing the ileocecal sphincter. After chyme passes through, backward pressure helps close the sphincter, preventing backflow into the ileum. Because of this reflex, your lunch is completely emptied from your stomach and small intestine by the time you eat your dinner. It takes about 3 to 5 hours for all chyme to leave the small intestine.
The digestion of proteins and carbohydrates, which partially occurs in the stomach, is completed in the small intestine with the aid of intestinal and pancreatic juices. Lipids arrive in the intestine largely undigested, so much of the focus here is on lipid digestion, which is facilitated by bile and the enzyme pancreatic lipase.

Moreover, intestinal juice combines with pancreatic juice to provide a liquid medium that facilitates absorption. The intestine is also where most water is absorbed, via osmosis. The small intestine’s absorptive cells also synthesize digestive enzymes and then place them in the plasma membranes of the microvilli. This distinguishes the small intestine from the stomach; that is, enzymatic digestion occurs not only in the lumen, but also on the luminal surfaces of the mucosal cells.

For optimal chemical digestion, chyme must be delivered from the stomach slowly and in small amounts. This is because chyme from the stomach is typically hypertonic, and if large quantities were forced all at once into the small intestine, the resulting osmotic water loss from the blood into the intestinal lumen would result in potentially life-threatening low blood volume. In addition, continued digestion requires an upward adjustment of the low pH of stomach chyme, along with rigorous mixing of the chyme with bile and pancreatic juices. Both processes take time, so the pumping action of the pylorus must be carefully controlled to prevent the duodenum from being overwhelmed with chyme.

OpenStax. (2022). Anatomy and Physiology 2e. Rice University. Retrieved June 15, 2023. ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-06-7 (Hardcover) ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-05-0 (Paperback) ISBN-13: 978-1-951693-42-8 (Digital). License: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Access for free at

The three regions of the small intestine are the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

(a) The absorptive surface of the small intestine is vastly enlarged by the presence of circular folds, villi, and microvilli. (b) Micrograph of the circular folds. (c) Micrograph of the villi. (d) Electron micrograph of the microvilli. From left to right, LM x 56, LM x 508, EM x 196,000. (credit b-d: Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Cell typeLocation in the mucosaFunction
AbsorptiveEpithelium/intestinal glandsDigestion and absorption of nutrients in chyme
GobletEpithelium/intestinal glandsSecretion of mucus
PanethIntestinal glandsSecretion of the bactericidal enzyme lysozyme; phagocytosis
G cellsIntestinal glands of duodenumSecretion of the hormone intestinal gastrin
I cellsIntestinal glands of duodenumSecretion of the hormone cholecystokinin, which stimulates release of pancreatic juices and bile
K cellsIntestinal glandsSecretion of the hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, which stimulates the release of insulin
M cellsIntestinal glands of duodenum and jejunumSecretion of the hormone motilin, which accelerates gastric emptying, stimulates intestinal peristalsis, and stimulates the production of pepsin
S cellsIntestinal glandsSecretion of the hormone secretin

Segmentation separates chyme and then pushes it back together, mixing it and providing time for digestion and absorption.

Nội dung này đang được cập nhật.
Dưới đây là video và các luyện tập (practice) của bài này. Nghe là một kĩ năng khó, đặc biệt là khi chúng ta chưa quen nội dung và chưa có nhạy cảm ngôn ngữ. Nhưng cứ đi thật chậm và đừng bỏ cuộc.
Xem video và cảm nhận nội dung bài. Bạn có thể thả trôi, cảm nhận dòng chảy ngôn ngữ và không nhất thiết phải hiểu toàn bộ bài. Bên dưới là script để bạn khái quát nội dụng và tra từ mới.
  1. The three main regions of the small intestine are the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum.
  2. The small intestine is where digestion is completed and virtually all absorption occurs.
  3. These two activities are facilitated by structural adaptations that increase the mucosal surface area by 600-fold, including circular folds, villi, and microvilli.
  4. There are around 200 million microvilli per square millimeter of small intestine, which contain brush border enzymes that complete the digestion of carbohydrates and proteins.
  5. Combined with pancreatic juice, intestinal juice provides the liquid medium needed to further digest and absorb substances from chyme.
  6. The small intestine is also the site of unique mechanical digestive movements.
  7. Segmentation moves the chyme back and forth, increasing mixing and opportunities for absorption.
  8. Migrating motility complexes propel the residual chyme toward the large intestine.
Bật video, nghe và điền từ vào chỗ trống.
Dưới đây là phần bàn luận. Bạn có thể tự do đặt câu hỏi, bổ sung kiến thức, và chia sẻ trải nghiệm của mình.
Notify of

Inline Feedbacks
View all comments

Ấn vào ô bên dưới để đánh dấu bạn đã hoàn thành bài học này

Quá dữ! Tiếp tục duy trì phong độ nhé!