Module 2: The Chemical Level of Organization

Lesson 9: Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning: Nucleotides

Các Hợp Chất Hữu Cơ Cần Thiết Cho Hoạt Động Của Con Người: Nucleotide

Nội dung bài học:
Mỗi bài học (lesson) bao gồm 4 phần chính: Thuật ngữ, Luyện Đọc, Luyện Nghe, và Bàn Luận.
Sử dụng tính năng:
Bôi hoặc nhấp đôi vào từ, sau đó ấn vào biểu tượng để tra nghĩa từ đó. Khi bạn đưa chuột đến câu (hoặc khi nhấp vào câu trên màn hình điện thoại), gợi ý về cách hiểu câu đó sẽ hiện lên. Cuối cùng, bạn có thể đánh dấu hoàn thành toàn bộ bài học bằng cách ấn vào nút “Hoàn Thành” ở cuối trang.
Đăng ký và đăng nhập
Bạn cần đăng ký và đăng nhập vào tài khoản để lưu quá trình học.
Dưới đây là danh sách những thuật ngữ Y khoa của module The Chemical Level of Organization.
Khái quát được số lượng thuật ngữ sẽ xuất hiện trong bài đọc và nghe sẽ giúp bạn thoải mái tiêu thụ nội dung hơn. Sau khi hoàn thành nội dung đọc và nghe, bạn hãy quay lại đây và luyện tập (practice) để quen dần các thuật ngữ này. Đừng ép bản thân phải nhớ các thuật ngữ này vội vì bạn sẽ gặp và ôn lại danh sách này trong những bài học (lesson) khác của cùng một module.

Medical Terminology: The Chemical Level of Organization

compound that releases hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
activation energy
amount of energy greater than the energy contained in the reactants, which must be overcome for a reaction to proceed
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
nucleotide containing ribose and an adenine base that is essential in energy transfer
amino acid
building block of proteins; characterized by an amino and carboxyl functional groups and a variable side-chain
atom with a negative charge
smallest unit of an element that retains the unique properties of that element
atomic number
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
compound that accepts hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
electrical force linking atoms
solution containing a weak acid or a weak base that opposes wide fluctuations in the pH of body fluids
class of organic compounds built from sugars, molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1-2-1 ratio
substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed in the process
atom with a positive charge
chemical energy
form of energy that is absorbed as chemical bonds form, stored as they are maintained, and released as they are broken
liquid mixture in which the solute particles consist of clumps of molecules large enough to scatter light
substance composed of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
number of particles within a given space
covalent bond
chemical bond in which two atoms share electrons, thereby completing their valence shells
decomposition reaction
type of catabolic reaction in which one or more bonds within a larger molecule are broken, resulting in the release of smaller molecules or atoms
change in the structure of a molecule through physical or chemical means
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
deoxyribose-containing nucleotide that stores genetic information
pair of carbohydrate monomers bonded by dehydration synthesis via a glycosidic bond
disulfide bond
covalent bond formed within a polypeptide between sulfide groups of sulfur-containing amino acids, for example, cysteine
subatomic particle having a negative charge and nearly no mass; found orbiting the atom’s nucleus
electron shell
area of space a given distance from an atom’s nucleus in which electrons are grouped
substance that cannot be created or broken down by ordinary chemical means
protein or RNA that catalyzes chemical reactions
exchange reaction
type of chemical reaction in which bonds are both formed and broken, resulting in the transfer of components
functional group
group of atoms linked by strong covalent bonds that tends to behave as a distinct unit in chemical reactions with other atoms
hydrogen bond
dipole-dipole bond in which a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom is weakly attracted to a second electronegative atom
inorganic compound
substance that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen
atom with an overall positive or negative charge
ionic bond
attraction between an anion and a cation
one of the variations of an element in which the number of neutrons differ from each other
kinetic energy
energy that matter possesses because of its motion
class of nonpolar organic compounds built from hydrocarbons and distinguished by the fact that they are not soluble in water
large molecule formed by covalent bonding
mass number
sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
physical substance; that which occupies space and has mass
two or more atoms covalently bonded together
monomer of carbohydrate; also known as a simple sugar
heavy subatomic particle having no electrical charge and found in the atom’s nucleus
class of organic compounds composed of one or more phosphate groups, a pentose sugar, and a base
organic compound
substance that contains both carbon and hydrogen
peptide bond
covalent bond formed by dehydration synthesis between two amino acids
periodic table of the elements
arrangement of the elements in a table according to their atomic number; elements having similar properties because of their electron arrangements compose columns in the table, while elements having the same number of valence shells compose rows in the table
negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration of a solution
a lipid compound in which a phosphate group is combined with a diglyceride
addition of one or more phosphate groups to an organic compound
polar molecule
molecule with regions that have opposite charges resulting from uneven numbers of electrons in the nuclei of the atoms participating in the covalent bond
compound consisting of more than two carbohydrate monomers bonded by dehydration synthesis via glycosidic bonds
potential energy
stored energy matter possesses because of the positioning or structure of its components
one or more substances produced by a chemical reaction
lipid compound derived from fatty acid chains and important in regulating several body processes
class of organic compounds that are composed of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
heavy subatomic particle having a positive charge and found in the atom’s nucleus
nitrogen-containing base with a double ring structure; adenine and guanine
nitrogen-containing base with a single ring structure; cytosine, thiamine, and uracil
radioactive isotope
unstable, heavy isotope that gives off subatomic particles, or electromagnetic energy, as it decays; also called radioisotopes
one or more substances that enter into the reaction
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
ribose-containing nucleotide that helps manifest the genetic code as protein
homogeneous liquid mixture in which a solute is dissolved into molecules within a solvent
(also, sterol) lipid compound composed of four hydrocarbon rings bonded to a variety of other atoms and molecules
reactant in an enzymatic reaction
liquid mixture in which particles distributed in the liquid settle out over time
synthesis reaction
type of anabolic reaction in which two or more atoms or molecules bond, resulting in the formation of a larger molecule
lipid compound composed of a glycerol molecule bonded with three fatty acid chains
valence shell
outermost electron shell of an atom
Nội dung này đang được cập nhật.
Dưới đây là các bài văn nằm ở bên trái. Ở bên phải là các bài luyện tập (practice) để đánh giá khả năng đọc hiểu của bạn. Sẽ khó khăn trong thời gian đầu nếu vốn từ vựng của bạn còn hạn chế, đặc biệt là từ vựng Y khoa. Hãy kiên nhẫn và đọc nhiều nhất có kể, lượng kiến thức tích tụ dần sẽ giúp bạn đọc thoải mái hơn.
The fourth type of organic compound important to human structure and function are the nucleotides (Figure 1). A nucleotide is one of a class of organic compounds composed of three subunits:
  • one or more phosphate groups
  • a pentose sugar: either deoxyribose or ribose
  • a nitrogen-containing base: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, or uracil

Nucleotides can be assembled into nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) or the energy compound adenosine triphosphate.
The nucleic acids differ in their type of pentose sugar. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is nucleotide that stores genetic information. DNA contains deoxyribose (so-called because it has one less atom of oxygen than ribose) plus one phosphate group and one nitrogen-containing base. The “choices” of base for DNA are adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a ribose-containing nucleotide that helps manifest the genetic code as protein. RNA contains ribose, one phosphate group, and one nitrogen-containing base, but the “choices” of base for RNA are adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil.

The nitrogen-containing bases adenine and guanine are classified as purines. A purine is a nitrogen-containing molecule with a double ring structure, which accommodates several nitrogen atoms. The bases cytosine, thymine (found in DNA only) and uracil (found in RNA only) are pyramidines. A pyramidine is a nitrogen-containing base with a single ring structure.

Bonds formed by dehydration synthesis between the pentose sugar of one nucleic acid monomer and the phosphate group of another form a “backbone,” from which the components’ nitrogen-containing bases protrude. In DNA, two such backbones attach at their protruding bases via hydrogen bonds. These twist to form a shape known as a double helix (Figure 2). The sequence of nitrogen-containing bases within a strand of DNA form the genes that act as a molecular code instructing cells in the assembly of amino acids into proteins. Humans have almost 22,000 genes in their DNA, locked up in the 46 chromosomes inside the nucleus of each cell (except red blood cells which lose their nuclei during development). These genes carry the genetic code to build one’s body, and are unique for each individual except identical twins.

In contrast, RNA consists of a single strand of sugar-phosphate backbone studded with bases. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is created during protein synthesis to carry the genetic instructions from the DNA to the cell’s protein manufacturing plants in the cytoplasm, the ribosomes.
The nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is composed of a ribose sugar, an adenine base, and three phosphate groups (Figure 3). ATP is classified as a high energy compound because the two covalent bonds linking its three phosphates store a significant amount of potential energy. In the body, the energy released from these high energy bonds helps fuel the body’s activities, from muscle contraction to the transport of substances in and out of cells to anabolic chemical reactions.

When a phosphate group is cleaved from ATP, the products are adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). This hydrolysis reaction can be written:

ATP + H2O → ADP + Pi + energy

Removal of a second phosphate leaves adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and two phosphate groups. Again, these reactions also liberate the energy that had been stored in the phosphate-phosphate bonds. They are reversible, too, as when ADP undergoes phosphorylation. Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate group to an organic compound, in this case, resulting in ATP. In such cases, the same level of energy that had been released during hydrolysis must be reinvested to power dehydration synthesis.

Cells can also transfer a phosphate group from ATP to another organic compound. For example, when glucose first enters a cell, a phosphate group is transferred from ATP, forming glucose phosphate (C6H12O6—P) and ADP. Once glucose is phosphorylated in this way, it can be stored as glycogen or metabolized for immediate energy.

OpenStax. (2022). Anatomy and Physiology 2e. Rice University. Retrieved June 15, 2023. ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-06-7 (Hardcover) ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-05-0 (Paperback) ISBN-13: 978-1-951693-42-8 (Digital). License: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Access for free at

(a) The building blocks of all nucleotides are one or more phosphate groups, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base. (b) The nitrogen-containing bases of nucleotides. (c) The two pentose sugars of DNA and RNA.

In the DNA double helix, two strands attach via hydrogen bonds between the bases of the component nucleotides.

Nội dung này đang được cập nhật.
Dưới đây là video và các luyện tập (practice) của bài này. Nghe là một kĩ năng khó, đặc biệt là khi chúng ta chưa quen nội dung và chưa có nhạy cảm ngôn ngữ. Nhưng cứ đi thật chậm và đừng bỏ cuộc.
Xem video và cảm nhận nội dung bài. Bạn có thể thả trôi, cảm nhận dòng chảy ngôn ngữ và không nhất thiết phải hiểu toàn bộ bài. Bên dưới là script để bạn khái quát nội dụng và tra từ mới.
  1. Organic compounds essential to human functioning include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleotides.
  2. These compounds are said to be organic because they contain both carbon and hydrogen.
  3. Carbon atoms in organic compounds readily share electrons with hydrogen and other atoms, usually oxygen, and sometimes nitrogen.
  4. Carbon atoms also may bond with one or more functional groups such as carboxyls, hydroxyls, aminos, or phosphates.
  5. Monomers are single units of organic compounds.
  6. They bond by dehydration synthesis to form polymers, which can in turn be broken by hydrolysis.
  7. Carbohydrate compounds provide essential body fuel.
  8. Their structural forms include monosaccharides such as glucose, disaccharides such as lactose, and polysaccharides, including starches, glycogen, and fiber.
  9. Starches are polymers of glucose, while glycogen is the storage form of glucose.
  10. All body cells can use glucose for fuel.
  11. It is converted via an oxidation-reduction reaction to ATP.
  12. Lipids are hydrophobic compounds that provide body fuel and are important components of many biological compounds.
  13. Triglycerides are the most abundant lipid in the body, and are composed of a glycerol backbone attached to three fatty acid chains.
  14. Phospholipids are compounds composed of a diglyceride with a phosphate group attached at the molecule’s head.
  15. The result is a molecule with polar and nonpolar regions.
  16. Steroids are lipids formed of four hydrocarbon rings.
  17. The most important is cholesterol.
  18. Prostaglandins are signaling molecules derived from unsaturated fatty acids.
  19. Proteins are critical components of all body tissues.
  20. They are made up of monomers called amino acids, which contain nitrogen, joined by peptide bonds.
  21. Protein shape is critical to its function.
  22. Most body proteins are globular.
  23. An example is enzymes, which catalyze chemical reactions.
  24. Nucleotides are compounds with three building blocks: one or more phosphate groups, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base.
  25. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids that function in protein synthesis.
  26. ATP is the body’s fundamental molecule of energy transfer.
  27. Removal or addition of phosphates releases or invests energy.
Bật video, nghe và điền từ vào chỗ trống.
Dưới đây là phần bàn luận. Bạn có thể tự do đặt câu hỏi, bổ sung kiến thức, và chia sẻ trải nghiệm của mình.
Notify of

Inline Feedbacks
View all comments

Ấn vào ô bên dưới để đánh dấu bạn đã hoàn thành bài học này

Quá dữ! Tiếp tục duy trì phong độ nhé!