Module 19: Metabolism and Nutrition

Lesson 7: Nutrition and Diet

Dinh Dưỡng Và Chế Độ Ăn

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Mỗi bài học (lesson) bao gồm 4 phần chính: Thuật ngữ, Luyện Đọc, Luyện Nghe, và Bàn Luận.
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Dưới đây là danh sách những thuật ngữ Y khoa của module Metabolism and Nutrition.
Khái quát được số lượng thuật ngữ sẽ xuất hiện trong bài đọc và nghe sẽ giúp bạn thoải mái tiêu thụ nội dung hơn. Sau khi hoàn thành nội dung đọc và nghe, bạn hãy quay lại đây và luyện tập (practice) để quen dần các thuật ngữ này. Đừng ép bản thân phải nhớ các thuật ngữ này vội vì bạn sẽ gặp và ôn lại danh sách này trong những bài học (lesson) khác của cùng một module.

Medical Terminology: Metabolism and Nutrition

absorptive state
also called the fed state; the metabolic state occurring during the first few hours after ingesting food in which the body is digesting food and absorbing the nutrients
acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)
starting molecule of the Krebs cycle
anabolic hormones
hormones that stimulate the synthesis of new, larger molecules
anabolic reactions
reactions that build smaller molecules into larger molecules
ATP synthase
protein pore complex that creates ATP
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
amount of energy expended by the body at rest
beta (β)-hydroxybutyrate
primary ketone body produced in the body
beta (β)-oxidation
fatty acid oxidation
bile salts
salts that are released from the liver in response to lipid ingestion and surround the insoluble triglycerides to aid in their conversion to monoglycerides and free fatty acids
biosynthesis reactions
reactions that create new molecules, also called anabolic reactions
body mass index (BMI)
relative amount of body weight compared to the overall height; a BMI ranging from 18–24.9 is considered normal weight, 25–29.9 is considered overweight, and greater than 30 is considered obese
amount of heat it takes to raise 1 kg (1000 g) of water by 1 °C
catabolic hormones
hormones that stimulate the breakdown of larger molecules
catabolic reactions
reactions that break down larger molecules into their constituent parts
cellular respiration
production of ATP from glucose oxidation via glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation
cholecystokinin (CCK)
hormone that stimulates the release of pancreatic lipase and the contraction of the gallbladder to release bile salts
vesicles containing cholesterol and triglycerides that transport lipids out of the intestinal cells and into the lymphatic and circulatory systems
pancreatic enzyme that digests protein
proenzyme that is activated by trypsin into chymotrypsin
citric acid cycle
also called the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle; converts pyruvate into CO2 and high-energy FADH2, NADH, and ATP molecules
transfer of heat through physical contact
transfer of heat between the skin and air or water
pancreatic enzyme that digests protein
electron transport chain (ETC)
ATP production pathway in which electrons are passed through a series of oxidation-reduction reactions that forms water and produces a proton gradient
energy-consuming phase
first phase of glycolysis, in which two molecules of ATP are necessary to start the reaction
energy-yielding phase
second phase of glycolysis, during which energy is produced
enzyme located in the wall of the small intestine that activates trypsin
transfer of heat that occurs when water changes from a liquid to a gas
high-energy molecule needed for glycolysis
fatty acid oxidation
breakdown of fatty acids into smaller chain fatty acids and acetyl CoA
flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
coenzyme used to produce FADH2
cellular enzyme, found in the liver, which converts glucose into glucose-6-phosphate upon uptake into the cell
process of glucose synthesis from pyruvate or other molecules
phosphorylated glucose produced in the first step of glycolysis
form that glucose assumes when it is stored
series of metabolic reactions that breaks down glucose into pyruvate and produces ATP
cellular enzyme, found in most tissues, that converts glucose into glucose-6-phosphate upon uptake into the cell
hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA (HMG CoA)
molecule created in the first step of the creation of ketone bodies from acetyl CoA
inactive proenzymes
forms in which proteases are stored and released to prevent the inappropriate digestion of the native proteins of the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine
hormone secreted by the pancreas that stimulates the uptake of glucose into the cells
ketone bodies
alternative source of energy when glucose is limited, created when too much acetyl CoA is created during fatty acid oxidation
Krebs cycle
also called the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle, converts pyruvate into CO2 and high-energy FADH2, NADH, and ATP molecules
synthesis of lipids that occurs in the liver or adipose tissues
breakdown of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids
metabolic rate
amount of energy consumed minus the amount of energy expended by the body
sum of all catabolic and anabolic reactions that take place in the body
inorganic compounds required by the body to ensure proper function of the body
monoglyceride molecules
lipid consisting of a single fatty acid chain attached to a glycerol backbone
smallest, monomeric sugar molecule
high-energy molecule needed for glycolysis
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
coenzyme used to produce NADH
loss of an electron
oxidation-reduction reaction
(also, redox reaction) pair of reactions in which an electron is passed from one molecule to another, oxidizing one and reducing the other
oxidative phosphorylation
process that converts high-energy NADH and FADH2 into ATP
pancreatic lipases
enzymes released from the pancreas that digest lipids in the diet
enzyme that begins to break down proteins in the stomach
complex carbohydrates made up of many monosaccharides
postabsorptive state
also called the fasting state; the metabolic state occurring after digestion when food is no longer the body’s source of energy and it must rely on stored glycogen
process of breaking proteins into smaller peptides
three-carbon end product of glycolysis and starting material that is converted into acetyl CoA that enters the Krebs cycle
transfer of heat via infrared waves
gaining of an electron
salivary amylase
digestive enzyme that is found in the saliva and begins the digestion of carbohydrates in the mouth
hormone released in the small intestine to aid in digestion
sodium bicarbonate
anion released into the small intestine to neutralize the pH of the food from the stomach
terminal electron acceptor
oxygen, the recipient of the free hydrogen at the end of the electron transport chain
external temperature at which the body does not expend any energy for thermoregulation, about 84 °F
process of regulating the temperature of the body
transfer of an amine group from one molecule to another as a way to turn nitrogen waste into ammonia so that it can enter the urea cycle
tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA)
also called the Krebs cycle or the citric acid cycle; converts pyruvate into CO2 and high-energy FADH2, NADH, and ATP molecules
lipids, or fats, consisting of three fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol backbone
pancreatic enzyme that activates chymotrypsin and digests protein
proenzyme form of trypsin
urea cycle
process that converts potentially toxic nitrogen waste into urea that can be eliminated through the kidneys
organic compounds required by the body to perform biochemical reactions like metabolism and bone, cell, and tissue growth
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Dưới đây là các bài văn nằm ở bên trái. Ở bên phải là các bài luyện tập (practice) để đánh giá khả năng đọc hiểu của bạn. Sẽ khó khăn trong thời gian đầu nếu vốn từ vựng của bạn còn hạn chế, đặc biệt là từ vựng Y khoa. Hãy kiên nhẫn và đọc nhiều nhất có kể, lượng kiến thức tích tụ dần sẽ giúp bạn đọc thoải mái hơn.
The carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins in the foods you eat are used for energy to power molecular, cellular, and organ system activities. Importantly, the energy is stored primarily as fats. The quantity and quality of food that is ingested, digested, and absorbed affects the amount of fat that is stored as excess calories. Diet—both what you eat and how much you eat—has a dramatic impact on your health. Eating too much or too little food can lead to serious medical issues, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, anorexia, and diabetes, among others. Combine an unhealthy diet with unhealthy environmental conditions, such as smoking, and the potential medical complications increase significantly.
The amount of energy that is needed or ingested per day is measured in calories. The nutritional Calorie (C) is the amount of heat it takes to raise 1 kg (1000 g) of water by 1 °C. This is different from the calorie (c) used in the physical sciences, which is the amount of heat it takes to raise 1 g of water by 1 °C. When we refer to “calorie,” we are referring to the nutritional Calorie.

On average, a person needs 1500 to 2000 calories per day to sustain (or carry out) daily activities. The total number of calories needed by one person is dependent on their body mass, age, height, gender, activity level, and the amount of exercise per day. If exercise is regular part of one’s day, more calories are required. As a rule, people underestimate the number of calories ingested and overestimate the amount they burn through exercise. This can lead to ingestion of too many calories per day. The accumulation of an extra 3500 calories adds one pound of weight. If an excess of 200 calories per day is ingested, one extra pound of body weight will be gained every 18 days. At that rate, an extra 20 pounds can be gained over the course of a year. Of course, this increase in calories could be offset by increased exercise. Running or jogging one mile burns almost 100 calories.

The type of food ingested also affects the body’s metabolic rate. Processing of carbohydrates requires less energy than processing of proteins. In fact, the breakdown of carbohydrates requires the least amount of energy, whereas the processing of proteins demands the most energy. In general, the amount of calories ingested and the amount of calories burned determines the overall weight. To lose weight, the number of calories burned per day must exceed the number ingested. Calories are in almost everything you ingest, so when considering calorie intake, beverages must also be considered.

To help provide guidelines regarding the types and quantities of food that should be eaten every day, the USDA has updated their food guidelines from MyPyramid to MyPlate. They have put the recommended elements of a healthy meal into the context of a place setting of food. MyPlate categorizes food into the standard six food groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods, dairy, and oils. The accompanying website gives clear recommendations regarding quantity and type of each food that you should consume each day, as well as identifying which foods belong in each category. The accompanying graphic (Figure 1) gives a clear visual with general recommendations for a healthy and balanced meal. The guidelines recommend to “Make half your plate fruits and vegetables.” The other half is grains and protein, with a slightly higher quantity of grains than protein. Dairy products are represented by a drink, but the quantity can be applied to other dairy products as well. provides extensive online resources for planning a healthy diet and lifestyle, including offering weight management tips and recommendations for physical activity. It also includes the SuperTracker, a web-based application to help you analyze your own diet and physical activity.
Vitamins are organic compounds found in foods and are a necessary part of the biochemical reactions in the body. They are involved in a number of processes, including mineral and bone metabolism, and cell and tissue growth, and they act as cofactors for energy metabolism. The B vitamins play the largest role of any vitamins in metabolism (Table 1 and Table 2).

You get most of your vitamins through your diet, although some can be formed from the precursors absorbed during digestion. For example, the body synthesizes vitamin A from the β-carotene in orange vegetables like carrots and sweet potatoes. Vitamins are either fat-soluble or water-soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K, are absorbed through the intestinal tract with lipids in chylomicrons. Vitamin D is also synthesized in the skin through exposure to sunlight. Because they are carried in lipids, fat-soluble vitamins can accumulate in the lipids stored in the body. If excess vitamins are retained in the lipid stores in the body, hypervitaminosis can result.

Water-soluble vitamins, including the eight B vitamins and vitamin C, are absorbed with water in the gastrointestinal tract. These vitamins move easily through bodily fluids, which are water based, so they are not stored in the body. Excess water-soluble vitamins are excreted in the urine. Therefore, hypervitaminosis of water-soluble vitamins rarely occurs, except with an excess of vitamin supplements.
Minerals in food are inorganic compounds that work with other nutrients to ensure the body functions properly. Minerals cannot be made in the body; they come from the diet. The amount of minerals in the body is small—only 4 percent of the total body mass—and most of that consists of the minerals that the body requires in moderate quantities: potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and chloride.

The most common minerals in the body are calcium and phosphorous, both of which are stored in the skeleton and necessary for the hardening of bones. Most minerals are ionized, and their ionic forms are used in physiological processes throughout the body. Sodium and chloride ions are electrolytes in the blood and extracellular tissues, and iron ions are critical to the formation of hemoglobin. There are additional trace minerals that are still important to the body’s functions, but their required quantities are much lower.

Like vitamins, minerals can be consumed in toxic quantities (although it is rare). A healthy diet includes most of the minerals your body requires, so supplements and processed foods can add potentially toxic levels of minerals. Table 3 and Table 4 provide a summary of minerals and their function in the body.

OpenStax. (2022). Anatomy and Physiology 2e. Rice University. Retrieved June 15, 2023. ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-06-7 (Hardcover) ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-05-0 (Paperback) ISBN-13: 978-1-951693-42-8 (Digital). License: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Access for free at

The U.S. Department of Agriculture developed food guidelines called MyPlate to help demonstrate how to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Vitamin and alternative nameSourcesRecommended daily allowanceFunctionProblems associated with deficiency
retinal or β-carotene
Yellow and orange fruits and vegetables, dark green leafy vegetables, eggs, milk, liver700–900 µgEye and bone development, immune functionNight blindness, epithelial changes, immune system deficiency
Dairy products, egg yolks; also synthesized in the skin from exposure to sunlight5–15 µgAids in calcium absorption, promoting bone growthRickets, bone pain, muscle weakness, increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, asthma in children, cancer
Seeds, nuts, vegetable oils, avocados, wheat germ15 mgAntioxidantAnemia
Dark green leafy vegetables, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage90–120 µgBlood clotting, bone healthHemorrhagic disease of newborn in infants; uncommon in adults
Vitamin and alternative nameSourcesRecommended daily allowanceFunctionProblems associated with deficiency
Whole grains, enriched bread and cereals, milk, meat1.1–1.2 mgCarbohydrate metabolismBeriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Brewer’s yeast, almonds, milk, organ meats, legumes, enriched breads and cereals, broccoli, asparagus1.1–1.3 mgSynthesis of FAD for metabolism, production of red blood cellsFatigue, slowed growth, digestive problems, light sensitivity, epithelial problems like cracks in the corners of the mouth
Meat, fish, poultry, enriched breads and cereals, peanuts14–16 mgSynthesis of NAD, nerve function, cholesterol productionCracked, scaly skin; dementia; diarrhea; also known as pellagra
pantothenic acid
Meat, poultry, potatoes, oats, enriched breads and cereals, tomatoes5 mgSynthesis of coenzyme A in fatty acid metabolismRare: symptoms may include fatigue, insomnia, depression, irritability
Potatoes, bananas, beans, seeds, nuts, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dark green leafy vegetables, soy, organ meats1.3–1.5 mgSodium and potassium balance, red blood cell synthesis, protein metabolismConfusion, irritability, depression, mouth and tongue sores
Liver, fruits, meats30 µgCell growth, metabolism of fatty acids, production of blood cellsRare in developed countries; symptoms include dermatitis, hair loss, loss of muscular coordination
folic acid
Liver, legumes, dark green leafy vegetables, enriched breads and cereals, citrus fruits400 µgDNA/protein synthesisPoor growth, gingivitis, appetite loss, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal problems, mental deficits
Fish, meat, poultry, dairy products, eggs2.4 µgFatty acid oxidation, nerve cell function, red blood cell productionPernicious anemia, leading to nerve cell damage
ascorbic acid
Citrus fruits, red berries, peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, dark green leafy vegetables75–90 mgNecessary to produce collagen for formation of connective tissue and teeth, and for wound healingDry hair, gingivitis, bleeding gums, dry and scaly skin, slow wound healing, easy bruising, compromised immunity; can lead to scurvy
MineralSourcesRecommended daily allowanceFunctionProblems associated with deficiency
PotassiumMeats, some fish, fruits, vegetables, legumes, dairy products4700 mgNerve and muscle function; acts as an electrolyteHypokalemia: weakness, fatigue, muscle cramping, gastrointestinal problems, cardiac problems
SodiumTable salt, milk, beets, celery, processed foods2300 mgBlood pressure, blood volume, muscle and nerve functionRare
CalciumDairy products, dark green leafy vegetables, blackstrap molasses, nuts, brewer’s yeast, some fish1000 mgBone structure and health; nerve and muscle functions, especially cardiac functionSlow growth, weak and brittle bones
PhosphorousMeat, milk700 mgBone formation, metabolism, ATP productionRare
MagnesiumWhole grains, nuts, leafy green vegetables310–420 mgEnzyme activation, production of energy, regulation of other nutrientsAgitation, anxiety, sleep problems, nausea and vomiting, abnormal heart rhythms, low blood pressure, muscular problems
ChlorideMost foods, salt, vegetables, especially seaweed, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, olives2300 mgBalance of body fluids, digestionLoss of appetite, muscle cramps
MineralSourcesRecommended daily allowanceFunctionProblems associated with deficiency
IronMeat, poultry, fish, shellfish, legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, dark leafy green vegetables8–18 mgTransport of oxygen in blood, production of ATPAnemia, weakness, fatigue
ZincMeat, fish, poultry, cheese, shellfish8–11 mgImmunity, reproduction, growth, blood clotting, insulin and thyroid functionLoss of appetite, poor growth, weight loss, skin problems, hair loss, vision problems, lack of taste or smell
CopperSeafood, organ meats, nuts, legumes, chocolate, enriched breads and cereals, some fruits and vegetables900 µgRed blood cell production, nerve and immune system function, collagen formation, acts as an antioxidantAnemia, low body temperature, bone fractures, low white blood cell concentration, irregular heartbeat, thyroid problems
IodineFish, shellfish, garlic, lima beans, sesame seeds, soybeans, dark leafy green vegetables150 µgThyroid functionHypothyroidism: fatigue, weight gain, dry skin, temperature sensitivity
SulfurEggs, meat, poultry, fish, legumesNoneComponent of amino acidsProtein deficiency
FluorideFluoridated water3–4 mgMaintenance of bone and tooth structureIncreased cavities, weak bones and teeth
ManganeseNuts, seeds, whole grains, legumes1.8–2.3 mgFormation of connective tissue and bones, blood clotting, sex hormone development, metabolism, brain and nerve functionInfertility, bone malformation, weakness, seizures
CobaltFish, nuts, leafy green vegetables, whole grainsNoneComponent of B12None
SeleniumBrewer’s yeast, wheat germ, liver, butter, fish, shellfish, whole grains55 µgAntioxidant, thyroid function, immune system functionMuscle pain
ChromiumWhole grains, lean meats, cheese, black pepper, thyme, brewer’s yeast25–35 µgInsulin functionHigh blood sugar, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels
MolybdenumLegumes, whole grains, nuts45 µgCofactor for enzymesRare
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Dưới đây là video và các luyện tập (practice) của bài này. Nghe là một kĩ năng khó, đặc biệt là khi chúng ta chưa quen nội dung và chưa có nhạy cảm ngôn ngữ. Nhưng cứ đi thật chậm và đừng bỏ cuộc.
Xem video và cảm nhận nội dung bài. Bạn có thể thả trôi, cảm nhận dòng chảy ngôn ngữ và không nhất thiết phải hiểu toàn bộ bài. Bên dưới là script để bạn khái quát nội dụng và tra từ mới.
  1. Nutrition and diet affect your metabolism.
  2. More energy is required to break down fats and proteins than carbohydrates.
  3. However, all excess calories that are ingested will be stored as fat in the body.
  4. On average, a person requires 1500 to 2000 calories for normal daily activity, even though routine exercise will increase that amount.
  5. If you ingest more than that, the remainder is stored for later use.
  6. Conversely, if you ingest less than that, the energy stores in your body will be depleted.
  7. Both the quantity and quality of the food you eat affect your metabolism and can affect your overall health.
  8. Eating too much or too little can result in serious medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes.
  9. Vitamins and minerals are essential parts of the diet.
  10. They are needed for the proper function of metabolic pathways in the body.
  11. Vitamins are not stored in the body, so they must be obtained from the diet or synthesized from precursors available in the diet.
  12. Minerals are also obtained from the diet, but they are also stored, primarily in skeletal tissues.
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