Module 20: The Integumentary System

Lesson 3: Functions of the Skin and Accessory Structures

Chức Năng Của Da Và Cấu Trúc Phụ

Nội dung bài học:
Mỗi bài học (lesson) bao gồm 4 phần chính: Thuật ngữ, Luyện Đọc, Luyện Nghe, và Bàn Luận.
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Dưới đây là danh sách những thuật ngữ Y khoa của module The Integumentary System.
Khái quát được số lượng thuật ngữ sẽ xuất hiện trong bài đọc và nghe sẽ giúp bạn thoải mái tiêu thụ nội dung hơn. Sau khi hoàn thành nội dung đọc và nghe, bạn hãy quay lại đây và luyện tập (practice) để quen dần các thuật ngữ này. Đừng ép bản thân phải nhớ các thuật ngữ này vội vì bạn sẽ gặp và ôn lại danh sách này trong những bài học (lesson) khác của cùng một module.

Medical Terminology: The Integumentary System

skin condition due to infected sebaceous glands
genetic disorder that affects the skin, in which there is no melanin production
active phase of the hair growth cycle
apocrine sweat gland
type of sweat gland that is associated with hair follicles in the armpits and genital regions
arrector pili
smooth muscle that is activated in response to external stimuli that pull on hair follicles and make the hair “stand up”
basal cell
type of stem cell found in the stratum basale and in the hair matrix that continually undergoes cell division, producing the keratinocytes of the epidermis
basal cell carcinoma
cancer that originates from basal cells in the epidermis of the skin
sore on the skin that develops when regions of the body start necrotizing due to constant pressure and lack of blood supply; also called decubitis ulcers
thickened area of skin that arises due to constant abrasion
transitional phase marking the end of the anagen phase of the hair growth cycle
type of callus that is named for its shape and the elliptical motion of the abrasive force
in hair, the second or middle layer of keratinocytes originating from the hair matrix, as seen in a cross-section of the hair bulb
in hair, the outermost layer of keratinocytes originating from the hair matrix, as seen in a cross-section of the hair bulb
dermal papilla
(plural = dermal papillae) extension of the papillary layer of the dermis that increases surface contact between the epidermis and dermis
layer of skin between the epidermis and hypodermis, composed mainly of connective tissue and containing blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, and other structures
structure that forms an impermeable junction between cells
eccrine sweat gland
type of sweat gland that is common throughout the skin surface; it produces a hypotonic sweat for thermoregulation
skin condition due to an allergic reaction, which resembles a rash
elastin fibers
fibers made of the protein elastin that increase the elasticity of the dermis
clear protein-bound lipid found in the stratum lucidum that is derived from keratohyalin and helps to prevent water loss
outermost tissue layer of the skin
nail fold that meets the proximal end of the nail body, also called the cuticle
external root sheath
outer layer of the hair follicle that is an extension of the epidermis, which encloses the hair root
first-degree burn
superficial burn that injures only the epidermis
fourth-degree burn
burn in which full thickness of the skin and underlying muscle and bone is damaged
glassy membrane
layer of connective tissue that surrounds the base of the hair follicle, connecting it to the dermis
keratinous filament growing out of the epidermis
hair bulb
structure at the base of the hair root that surrounds the dermal papilla
hair follicle
cavity or sac from which hair originates
hair matrix
layer of basal cells from which a strand of hair grows
hair papilla
mass of connective tissue, blood capillaries, and nerve endings at the base of the hair follicle
hair root
part of hair that is below the epidermis anchored to the follicle
hair shaft
part of hair that is above the epidermis but is not anchored to the follicle
connective tissue connecting the integument to the underlying bone and muscle
thickened layer of stratum corneum that lies below the free edge of the nail
integumentary system
skin and its accessory structures
internal root sheath
innermost layer of keratinocytes in the hair follicle that surround the hair root up to the hair shaft
type of scar that has layers raised above the skin surface
type of structural protein that gives skin, hair, and nails its hard, water-resistant properties
cell that produces keratin and is the most predominant type of cell found in the epidermis
granulated protein found in the stratum granulosum
Langerhans cell
specialized dendritic cell found in the stratum spinosum that functions as a macrophage
basal part of the nail body that consists of a crescent-shaped layer of thick epithelium
in hair, the innermost layer of keratinocytes originating from the hair matrix
Meissner corpuscle
(also, tactile corpuscle) receptor in the skin that responds to light touch
pigment that determines the color of hair and skin
cell found in the stratum basale of the epidermis that produces the pigment melanin
type of skin cancer that originates from the melanocytes of the skin
intercellular vesicle that transfers melanin from melanocytes into keratinocytes of the epidermis
Merkel cell
receptor cell in the stratum basale of the epidermis that responds to the sense of touch
spread of cancer cells from a source to other parts of the body
nail bed
layer of epidermis upon which the nail body forms
nail body
main keratinous plate that forms the nail
nail cuticle
fold of epithelium that extends over the nail bed, also called the eponychium
nail fold
fold of epithelium at that extend over the sides of the nail body, holding it in place
nail root
part of the nail that is lodged deep in the epidermis from which the nail grows
Pacinian corpuscle
(also, lamellated corpuscle) receptor in the skin that responds to vibration
papillary layer
superficial layer of the dermis, made of loose, areolar connective tissue
reticular layer
deeper layer of the dermis; it has a reticulated appearance due to the presence of abundant collagen and elastin fibers
disease in children caused by vitamin D deficiency, which leads to the weakening of bones
collagen-rich skin formed after the process of wound healing that is different from normal skin
sebaceous gland
type of oil gland found in the dermis all over the body and helps to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair by secreting sebum
oily substance that is composed of a mixture of lipids that lubricates the skin and hair
second-degree burn
partial-thickness burn that injures the epidermis and a portion of the dermis
squamous cell carcinoma
type of skin cancer that originates from the stratum spinosum of the epidermis
stratum basale
deepest layer of the epidermis, made of epidermal stem cells
stratum corneum
most superficial layer of the epidermis
stratum granulosum
layer of the epidermis superficial to the stratum spinosum
stratum lucidum
layer of the epidermis between the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum, found only in thick skin covering the palms, soles of the feet, and digits
stratum spinosum
layer of the epidermis superficial to the stratum basale, characterized by the presence of desmosomes
stretch mark
mark formed on the skin due to a sudden growth spurt and expansion of the dermis beyond its elastic limits
sudoriferous gland
sweat gland
resting phase of the hair growth cycle initiated with catagen and terminated by the beginning of a new anagen phase of hair growth
third-degree burn
burn that penetrates and destroys the full thickness of the skin (epidermis and dermis)
vitamin D
compound that aids absorption of calcium and phosphates in the intestine to improve bone health
skin condition in which melanocytes in certain areas lose the ability to produce melanin, possibly due an autoimmune reaction that leads to loss of color in patches
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Dưới đây là các bài văn nằm ở bên trái. Ở bên phải là các bài luyện tập (practice) để đánh giá khả năng đọc hiểu của bạn. Sẽ khó khăn trong thời gian đầu nếu vốn từ vựng của bạn còn hạn chế, đặc biệt là từ vựng Y khoa. Hãy kiên nhẫn và đọc nhiều nhất có kể, lượng kiến thức tích tụ dần sẽ giúp bạn đọc thoải mái hơn.
The skin and accessory structures perform a variety of essential functions, such as protecting the body from invasion by microorganisms, chemicals, and other environmental factors; preventing dehydration; acting as a sensory organ; modulating body temperature and electrolyte balance; and synthesizing vitamin D. The underlying hypodermis has important roles in storing fats, forming a “cushion” over underlying structures, and providing insulation from cold temperatures.
The skin protects the rest of the body from the basic elements of nature such as wind, water, and UV sunlight. It acts as a protective barrier against water loss, due to the presence of layers of keratin and glycolipids in the stratum corneum. It also is the first line of defense against abrasive activity due to contact with grit, microbes, or harmful chemicals. Sweat excreted from sweat glands deters microbes from over-colonizing the skin surface by generating dermicidin, which has antibiotic properties.
The fact that you can feel an ant crawling on your skin, allowing you to flick it off before it bites, is because the skin, and especially the hairs projecting from hair follicles in the skin, can sense changes in the environment. The hair root plexus surrounding the base of the hair follicle senses a disturbance, and then transmits the information to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), which can then respond by activating the skeletal muscles of your eyes to see the ant and the skeletal muscles of the body to act against the ant.

The skin acts as a sense organ because the epidermis, dermis, and the hypodermis contain specialized sensory nerve structures that detect touch, surface temperature, and pain. These receptors are more concentrated on the tips of the fingers, which are most sensitive to touch, especially the Meissner corpuscle (tactile corpuscle) (See Figure 1), which responds to light touch, and the Pacinian corpuscle (lamellated corpuscle), which responds to vibration. Merkel cells, seen scattered in the stratum basale, are also touch receptors. In addition to these specialized receptors, there are sensory nerves connected to each hair follicle, pain and temperature receptors scattered throughout the skin, and motor nerves innervate the arrector pili muscles and glands. This rich innervation helps us sense our environment and react accordingly.
The integumentary system helps regulate body temperature through its tight association with the sympathetic nervous system, the division of the nervous system involved in our fight-or-flight responses. The sympathetic nervous system is continuously monitoring body temperature and initiating appropriate motor responses. Recall that sweat glands, accessory structures to the skin, secrete water, salt, and other substances to cool the body when it becomes warm. Even when the body does not appear to be noticeably sweating, approximately 500 mL of sweat (insensible perspiration) are secreted a day. If the body becomes excessively warm due to high temperatures, vigorous activity (See Figure 2), or a combination of the two, sweat glands will be stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system to produce large amounts of sweat, as much as 0.7 to 1.5 L per hour for an active person. When the sweat evaporates from the skin surface, the body is cooled as body heat is dissipated.

In addition to sweating, arterioles in the dermis dilate so that excess heat carried by the blood can dissipate through the skin and into the surrounding environment (See Figure 2). This accounts for the skin redness that many people experience when exercising.

When body temperatures drop, the arterioles constrict to minimize heat loss, particularly in the ends of the digits and tip of the nose. This reduced circulation can result in the skin taking on a whitish hue. Although the temperature of the skin drops as a result, passive heat loss is prevented, and internal organs and structures remain warm. If the temperature of the skin drops too much (such as environmental temperatures below freezing), the conservation of body core heat can result in the skin actually freezing, a condition called frostbite.
The epidermal layer of human skin synthesizes vitamin D when exposed to UV radiation. In the presence of sunlight, a form of vitamin D3 called cholecalciferol is synthesized from a derivative of the steroid cholesterol in the skin. The liver converts cholecalciferol to calcidiol, which is then converted to calcitriol (the active chemical form of the vitamin) in the kidneys. Vitamin D is essential for normal absorption of calcium and phosphorous, which are required for healthy bones. The absence of sun exposure can lead to a lack of vitamin D in the body, leading to a condition called rickets, a painful condition in children where the bones are misshapen due to a lack of calcium, causing bowleggedness. Elderly individuals who suffer from vitamin D deficiency can develop a condition called osteomalacia, a softening of the bones. In present day society, vitamin D is added as a supplement to many foods, including milk and orange juice, compensating for the need for sun exposure.

In addition to its essential role in bone health, vitamin D is essential for general immunity against bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Recent studies are also finding a link between insufficient vitamin D and cancer.

OpenStax. (2022). Anatomy and Physiology 2e. Rice University. Retrieved June 15, 2023. ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-06-7 (Hardcover) ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-05-0 (Paperback) ISBN-13: 978-1-951693-42-8 (Digital). License: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Access for free at

In this micrograph of a skin cross-section, you can see a Meissner corpuscle (arrow), a type of touch receptor located in a dermal papilla adjacent to the basement membrane and stratum basale of the overlying epidermis. LM × 100. (credit: “Wbensmith”/Wikimedia Commons)

During strenuous physical activities, such as skiing (a) or running (c), the dermal blood vessels dilate and sweat secretion increases (b). These mechanisms prevent the body from overheating. In contrast, the dermal blood vessels constrict to minimize heat loss in response to low temperatures (b). (credit a: “Trysil”/flickr; credit c: Ralph Daily)

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Dưới đây là video và các luyện tập (practice) của bài này. Nghe là một kĩ năng khó, đặc biệt là khi chúng ta chưa quen nội dung và chưa có nhạy cảm ngôn ngữ. Nhưng cứ đi thật chậm và đừng bỏ cuộc.
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  1. The skin serves pivotal roles in protection, sensory perception, thermoregulation, and vitamin D synthesis.
  2. As the body’s first line of defense, it acts as a barrier against dehydration, infections, and injuries.
  3. Sweat glands, distributed across the skin, facilitate cooling when the body temperature rises.
  4. Thermoregulation is further achieved through the dilation or constriction of blood vessels in the skin, regulating heat exchange.
  5. Immune cells dispersed among the skin layers actively patrol to prevent the infiltration of foreign substances.
  6. The hypodermis, housing fat stores, contributes to both thermoregulation and protection.
  7. Additionally, the skin plays a crucial role in synthesizing vitamin D, essential for overall well-being but not readily available in natural foods.
  8. Thus, the skin’s multifaceted functions make it a vital organ in maintaining the body’s overall health and homeostasis.
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