Module 22: The Axial Skeleton

Lesson 11: Embryonic Development of the Axial Skeleton

Phát Triển Của Bộ Xương Trục Trong Giai Đoạn Phôi Thai

Nội dung bài học:
Mỗi bài học (lesson) bao gồm 4 phần chính: Thuật ngữ, Luyện Đọc, Luyện Nghe, và Bàn Luận.
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Dưới đây là danh sách những thuật ngữ Y khoa của module The Axial Skeleton.
Khái quát được số lượng thuật ngữ sẽ xuất hiện trong bài đọc và nghe sẽ giúp bạn thoải mái tiêu thụ nội dung hơn. Sau khi hoàn thành nội dung đọc và nghe, bạn hãy quay lại đây và luyện tập (practice) để quen dần các thuật ngữ này. Đừng ép bản thân phải nhớ các thuật ngữ này vội vì bạn sẽ gặp và ôn lại danh sách này trong những bài học (lesson) khác của cùng một module.

Medical Terminology: The Axial Skeleton

articular cartilage
thin layer of cartilage covering an epiphysis; reduces friction and acts as a shock absorber
where two bone surfaces meet
hard, dense connective tissue that forms the structural elements of the skeleton
(singular = canaliculus) channels within the bone matrix that house one of an osteocyte’s many cytoplasmic extensions that it uses to communicate and receive nutrients
semi-rigid connective tissue found on the skeleton in areas where flexibility and smooth surfaces support movement
central canal
longitudinal channel in the center of each osteon; contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels; also known as the Haversian canal
closed reduction
manual manipulation of a broken bone to set it into its natural position without surgery
compact bone
dense osseous tissue that can withstand compressive forces
tubular shaft that runs between the proximal and distal ends of a long bone
layer of spongy bone, that is sandwiched between two the layers of compact bone found in flat bones
endochondral ossification
process in which bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage
delicate membranous lining of a bone’s medullary cavity
epiphyseal line
completely ossified remnant of the epiphyseal plate
epiphyseal plate
(also, growth plate) sheet of hyaline cartilage in the metaphysis of an immature bone; replaced by bone tissue as the organ grows in length
wide section at each end of a long bone; filled with spongy bone and red marrow
external callus
collar of hyaline cartilage and bone that forms around the outside of a fracture
flat bone
thin and curved bone; serves as a point of attachment for muscles and protects internal organs
broken bone
fracture hematoma
blood clot that forms at the site of a broken bone
production of blood cells, which occurs in the red marrow of the bones
opening or depression in a bone
condition characterized by abnormally high levels of calcium
condition characterized by abnormally low levels of calcium
internal callus
fibrocartilaginous matrix, in the endosteal region, between the two ends of a broken bone
intramembranous ossification
process by which bone forms directly from mesenchymal tissue
irregular bone
bone of complex shape; protects internal organs from compressive forces
(singular = lacuna) spaces in a bone that house an osteocyte
long bone
cylinder-shaped bone that is longer than it is wide; functions as a lever
medullary cavity
hollow region of the diaphysis; filled with yellow marrow
process, during bone growth, by which bone is resorbed on one surface of a bone and deposited on another
nutrient foramen
small opening in the middle of the external surface of the diaphysis, through which an artery enters the bone to provide nourishment
open reduction
surgical exposure of a bone to reset a fracture
doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating musculoskeletal disorders and injuries
osseous tissue
bone tissue; a hard, dense connective tissue that forms the structural elements of the skeleton
(also, osteogenesis) bone formation
ossification center
cluster of osteoblasts found in the early stages of intramembranous ossification
cell responsible for forming new bone
cell responsible for resorbing bone
primary cell in mature bone; responsible for maintaining the matrix
osteogenic cell
undifferentiated cell with high mitotic activity; the only bone cells that divide; they differentiate and develop into osteoblasts
uncalcified bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts
(also, Haversian system) basic structural unit of compact bone; made of concentric layers of calcified matrix
disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass; occurs when the rate of bone resorption exceeds the rate of bone formation, a common occurrence as the body ages
perforating canal
(also, Volkmann’s canal) channel that branches off from the central canal and houses vessels and nerves that extend to the periosteum and endosteum
membrane that covers cartilage
fibrous membrane covering the outer surface of bone and continuous with ligaments
primary ossification center
region, deep in the periosteal collar, where bone development starts during endochondral ossification
bone markings where part of the surface sticks out above the rest of the surface, where tendons and ligaments attach
proliferative zone
region of the epiphyseal plate that makes new chondrocytes to replace those that die at the diaphyseal end of the plate and contributes to longitudinal growth of the epiphyseal plate
red marrow
connective tissue in the interior cavity of a bone where hematopoiesis takes place
process by which osteoclasts resorb old or damaged bone at the same time as and on the same surface where osteoblasts form new bone to replace that which is resorbed
reserve zone
region of the epiphyseal plate that anchors the plate to the osseous tissue of the epiphysis
secondary ossification center
region of bone development in the epiphyses
sesamoid bone
small, round bone embedded in a tendon; protects the tendon from compressive forces
short bone
cube-shaped bone that is approximately equal in length, width, and thickness; provides limited motion
skeletal system
organ system composed of bones and cartilage that provides for movement, support, and protection
spongy bone
(also, cancellous bone) trabeculated osseous tissue that supports shifts in weight distribution
(singular = trabecula) spikes or sections of the lattice-like matrix in spongy bone
yellow marrow
connective tissue in the interior cavity of a bone where fat is stored
zone of calcified matrix
region of the epiphyseal plate closest to the diaphyseal end; functions to connect the epiphyseal plate to the diaphysis
zone of maturation and hypertrophy
region of the epiphyseal plate where chondrocytes from the proliferative zone grow and mature and contribute to the longitudinal growth of the epiphyseal plate
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Dưới đây là các bài văn nằm ở bên trái. Ở bên phải là các bài luyện tập (practice) để đánh giá khả năng đọc hiểu của bạn. Sẽ khó khăn trong thời gian đầu nếu vốn từ vựng của bạn còn hạn chế, đặc biệt là từ vựng Y khoa. Hãy kiên nhẫn và đọc nhiều nhất có kể, lượng kiến thức tích tụ dần sẽ giúp bạn đọc thoải mái hơn.
The axial skeleton begins to form during early embryonic development. However, growth, remodeling, and ossification (bone formation) continue for several decades after birth before the adult skeleton is fully formed. Knowledge of the developmental processes that give rise to the skeleton is important for understanding the abnormalities that may arise in skeletal structures.
During the third week of embryonic development, a rod-like structure called the notochord develops dorsally along the length of the embryo. The tissue overlying the notochord enlarges and forms the neural tube, which will give rise to the brain and spinal cord. By the fourth week, mesoderm tissue located on either side of the notochord thickens and separates into a repeating series of block-like tissue structures, each of which is called a somite. As the somites enlarge, each one will split into several parts. The most medial of these parts is called a sclerotome. The sclerotomes consist of an embryonic tissue called mesenchyme, which will give rise to the fibrous connective tissues, cartilages, and bones of the body.

The bones of the skull arise from mesenchyme during embryonic development in two different ways. The first mechanism produces the bones that form the top and sides of the brain case. This involves the local accumulation of mesenchymal cells at the site of the future bone. These cells then differentiate directly into bone producing cells, which form the skull bones through the process of intramembranous ossification. As the brain case bones grow in the fetal skull, they remain separated from each other by large areas of dense connective tissue, each of which is called a fontanelle (Figure 1). The fontanelles are the soft spots on an infant’s head. They are important during birth because these areas allow the skull to change shape as it squeezes through the birth canal. After birth, the fontanelles allow for continued growth and expansion of the skull as the brain enlarges. The largest fontanelle is located on the anterior head, at the junction of the frontal and parietal bones. The fontanelles decrease in size and disappear by age 2. However, the skull bones remained separated from each other at the sutures, which contain dense fibrous connective tissue that unites the adjacent bones. The connective tissue of the sutures allows for continued growth of the skull bones as the brain enlarges during childhood growth.

The second mechanism for bone development in the skull produces the facial bones and floor of the brain case. This also begins with the localized accumulation of mesenchymal cells. However, these cells differentiate into cartilage cells, which produce a hyaline cartilage model of the future bone. As this cartilage model grows, it is gradually converted into bone through the process of endochondral ossification. This is a slow process and the cartilage is not completely converted to bone until the skull achieves its full adult size.

At birth, the brain case and orbits of the skull are disproportionally large compared to the bones of the jaws and lower face. This reflects the relative underdevelopment of the maxilla and mandible, which lack teeth, and the small sizes of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. During early childhood, the mastoid process enlarges, the two halves of the mandible and frontal bone fuse together to form single bones, and the paranasal sinuses enlarge. The jaws also expand as the teeth begin to appear. These changes all contribute to the rapid growth and enlargement of the face during childhood.
Development of the vertebrae begins with the accumulation of mesenchyme cells from each sclerotome around the notochord. These cells differentiate into a hyaline cartilage model for each vertebra, which then grow and eventually ossify into bone through the process of endochondral ossification. As the developing vertebrae grow, the notochord largely disappears. However, small areas of notochord tissue persist between the adjacent vertebrae and this contributes to the formation of each intervertebral disc.

The ribs and sternum also develop from mesenchyme. The ribs initially develop as part of the cartilage model for each vertebra, but in the thorax region, the rib portion separates from the vertebra by the eighth week. The cartilage model of the rib then ossifies, except for the anterior portion, which remains as the costal cartilage. The sternum initially forms as paired hyaline cartilage models on either side of the anterior midline, beginning during the fifth week of development. The cartilage models of the ribs become attached to the lateral sides of the developing sternum. Eventually, the two halves of the cartilaginous sternum fuse together along the midline and then ossify into bone. The manubrium and body of the sternum are converted into bone first, with the xiphoid process remaining as cartilage until late in life.

OpenStax. (2022). Anatomy and Physiology 2e. Rice University. Retrieved June 15, 2023. ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-06-7 (Hardcover) ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-05-0 (Paperback) ISBN-13: 978-1-951693-42-8 (Digital). License: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Access for free at

The bones of the newborn skull are not fully ossified and are separated by large areas called fontanelles, which are filled with fibrous connective tissue. The fontanelles allow for continued growth of the skull after birth. At the time of birth, the facial bones are small and underdeveloped, and the mastoid process has not yet formed.

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Dưới đây là video và các luyện tập (practice) của bài này. Nghe là một kĩ năng khó, đặc biệt là khi chúng ta chưa quen nội dung và chưa có nhạy cảm ngôn ngữ. Nhưng cứ đi thật chậm và đừng bỏ cuộc.
Xem video và cảm nhận nội dung bài. Bạn có thể thả trôi, cảm nhận dòng chảy ngôn ngữ và không nhất thiết phải hiểu toàn bộ bài. Bên dưới là script để bạn khái quát nội dụng và tra từ mới.
  1. Formation of the axial skeleton begins during early embryonic development with the appearance of the rod-like notochord along the dorsal length of the early embryo.
  2. Repeating, paired blocks of tissue called somites then appear along either side of notochord.
  3. As the somites grow, they split into parts, one of which is called a sclerotome.
  4. This consists of mesenchyme, the embryonic tissue that will become the bones, cartilages, and connective tissues of the body.
  5. Mesenchyme in the head region will produce the bones of the skull via two different mechanisms.
  6. The bones of the brain case arise via intramembranous ossification in which embryonic mesenchyme tissue converts directly into bone.
  7. At the time of birth, these bones are separated by fontanelles, wide areas of fibrous connective tissue.
  8. As the bones grow, the fontanelles are reduced to sutures, which allow for continued growth of the skull throughout childhood.
  9. In contrast, the cranial base and facial bones are produced by the process of endochondral ossification, in which mesenchyme tissue initially produces a hyaline cartilage model of the future bone.
  10. The cartilage model allows for growth of the bone and is gradually converted into bone over a period of many years.
  11. The vertebrae, ribs, and sternum also develop via endochondral ossification.
  12. Mesenchyme accumulates around the notochord and produces hyaline cartilage models of the vertebrae.
  13. The notochord largely disappears, but remnants of the notochord contribute to formation of the intervertebral discs.
  14. In the thorax region, a portion of the vertebral cartilage model splits off to form the ribs.
  15. These then become attached anteriorly to the developing cartilage model of the sternum.
  16. Growth of the cartilage models for the vertebrae, ribs, and sternum allow for enlargement of the thoracic cage during childhood and adolescence.
  17. The cartilage models gradually undergo ossification and are converted into bone.
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