Module 7: The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue

Lesson 1: Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System

Cấu Trúc Và Chức Năng Cơ Bản Của Hệ Thần Kinh

Nội dung bài học:
Mỗi bài học (lesson) bao gồm 4 phần chính: Thuật ngữ, Luyện Đọc, Luyện Nghe, và Bàn Luận.
Sử dụng tính năng:
Bôi hoặc nhấp đôi vào từ, sau đó ấn vào biểu tượng để tra nghĩa từ đó. Khi bạn đưa chuột đến câu (hoặc khi nhấp vào câu trên màn hình điện thoại), gợi ý về cách hiểu câu đó sẽ hiện lên. Cuối cùng, bạn có thể đánh dấu hoàn thành toàn bộ bài học bằng cách ấn vào nút “Hoàn Thành” ở cuối trang.
Đăng ký và đăng nhập
Bạn cần đăng ký và đăng nhập vào tài khoản để lưu quá trình học.
Dưới đây là danh sách những thuật ngữ Y khoa của module The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue.
Khái quát được số lượng thuật ngữ sẽ xuất hiện trong bài đọc và nghe sẽ giúp bạn thoải mái tiêu thụ nội dung hơn. Sau khi hoàn thành nội dung đọc và nghe, bạn hãy quay lại đây và luyện tập (practice) để quen dần các thuật ngữ này. Đừng ép bản thân phải nhớ các thuật ngữ này vội vì bạn sẽ gặp và ôn lại danh sách này trong những bài học (lesson) khác của cùng một module.

Medical Terminology: The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue

absolute refractory period
time during an action period when another action potential cannot be generated because the voltage-gated Na+ channel is inactivated
action potential
change in voltage of a cell membrane in response to a stimulus that results in transmission of an electrical signal; unique to neurons and muscle fibers
activation gate
part of the voltage-gated Na+ channel that opens when the membrane voltage reaches threshold
glial cell type of the CNS that provides support for neurons and maintains the blood-brain barrier
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
functional division of the nervous system that is responsible for homeostatic reflexes that coordinate control of cardiac and smooth muscle, as well as glandular tissue
single process of the neuron that carries an electrical signal (action potential) away from the cell body toward a target cell
axon hillock
tapering of the neuron cell body that gives rise to the axon
axon segment
single stretch of the axon insulated by myelin and bounded by nodes of Ranvier at either end (except for the first, which is after the initial segment, and the last, which is followed by the axon terminal)
axon terminal
end of the axon, where there are usually several branches extending toward the target cell
cytoplasm of an axon, which is different in composition than the cytoplasm of the neuronal cell body
biogenic amine
class of neurotransmitters that are enzymatically derived from amino acids but no longer contain a carboxyl group
shape of a neuron with two processes extending from the neuron cell body—the axon and one dendrite
blood-brain barrier (BBB)
physiological barrier between the circulatory system and the central nervous system that establishes a privileged blood supply, restricting the flow of substances into the CNS
the large organ of the central nervous system composed of white and gray matter, contained within the cranium and continuous with the spinal cord
central nervous system (CNS)
anatomical division of the nervous system located within the cranial and vertebral cavities, namely the brain and spinal cord
cerebral cortex
outermost layer of gray matter in the brain, where conscious perception takes place
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
circulatory medium within the CNS that is produced by ependymal cells in the choroid plexus filtering the blood
chemical synapse
connection between two neurons, or between a neuron and its target, where a neurotransmitter diffuses across a very short distance
cholinergic system
neurotransmitter system of acetylcholine, which includes its receptors and the enzyme acetylcholinesterase
choroid plexus
specialized structure containing ependymal cells that line blood capillaries and filter blood to produce CSF in the four ventricles of the brain
continuous conduction
slow propagation of an action potential along an unmyelinated axon owing to voltage-gated Na+ channels located along the entire length of the cell membrane
one of many branchlike processes that extends from the neuron cell body and functions as a contact for incoming signals (synapses) from other neurons or sensory cells
change in a cell membrane potential from rest toward zero
effector protein
enzyme that catalyzes the generation of a new molecule, which acts as the intracellular mediator of the signal that binds to the receptor
electrical synapse
connection between two neurons, or any two electrically active cells, where ions flow directly through channels spanning their adjacent cell membranes
electrochemical exclusion
principle of selectively allowing ions through a channel on the basis of their charge
enteric nervous system (ENS)
neural tissue associated with the digestive system that is responsible for nervous control through autonomic connections
ependymal cell
glial cell type in the CNS responsible for producing cerebrospinal fluid
excitable membrane
cell membrane that regulates the movement of ions so that an electrical signal can be generated
excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
graded potential in the postsynaptic membrane that is the result of depolarization and makes an action potential more likely to occur
G protein
guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolase that physically moves from the receptor protein to the effector protein to activate the latter
localized collection of neuron cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
property of a channel that determines how it opens under specific conditions, such as voltage change or physical deformation
generator potential
graded potential from dendrites of a unipolar cell which generates the action potential in the initial segment of that cell’s axon
glial cell
one of the various types of neural tissue cells responsible for maintenance of the tissue, and largely responsible for supporting neurons
graded potential
change in the membrane potential that varies in size, depending on the size of the stimulus that elicits it
gray matter
regions of the nervous system containing cell bodies of neurons with few or no myelinated axons; actually may be more pink or tan in color, but called gray in contrast to white matter
inactivation gate
part of a voltage-gated Na+ channel that closes when the membrane potential reaches +30 mV
inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
graded potential in the postsynaptic membrane that is the result of hyperpolarization and makes an action potential less likely to occur
initial segment
first part of the axon as it emerges from the axon hillock, where the electrical signals known as action potentials are generated
nervous system function that combines sensory perceptions and higher cognitive functions (memories, learning, emotion, etc.) to produce a response
ionotropic receptor
neurotransmitter receptor that acts as an ion channel gate, and opens by the binding of the neurotransmitter
leakage channel
ion channel that opens randomly and is not gated to a specific event, also known as a non-gated channel
ligand-gated channels
another name for an ionotropic receptor for which a neurotransmitter is the ligand
lower motor neuron
second neuron in the motor command pathway that is directly connected to the skeletal muscle
mechanically gated channel
ion channel that opens when a physical event directly affects the structure of the protein
membrane potential
distribution of charge across the cell membrane, based on the charges of ions
metabotropic receptor
neurotransmitter receptor that involves a complex of proteins that cause metabolic changes in a cell
glial cell type in the CNS that serves as the resident component of the immune system
shape of a neuron that has multiple processes—the axon and two or more dendrites
muscarinic receptor
type of acetylcholine receptor protein that is characterized by also binding to muscarine and is a metabotropic receptor
lipid-rich insulating substance surrounding the axons of many neurons, allowing for faster transmission of electrical signals
myelin sheath
lipid-rich layer of insulation that surrounds an axon, formed by oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells in the PNS; facilitates the transmission of electrical signals
cord-like bundle of axons located in the peripheral nervous system that transmits sensory input and response output to and from the central nervous system
neural tissue cell that is primarily responsible for generating and propagating electrical signals into, within, and out of the nervous system
neurotransmitter type that includes protein molecules and shorter chains of amino acids
chemical signal that is released from the synaptic end bulb of a neuron to cause a change in the target cell
nicotinic receptor
type of acetylcholine receptor protein that is characterized by also binding to nicotine and is an ionotropic receptor
node of Ranvier
gap between two myelinated regions of an axon, allowing for strengthening of the electrical signal as it propagates down the axon
nonspecific channel
channel that is not specific to one ion over another, such as a nonspecific cation channel that allows any positively charged ion across the membrane
in the nervous system, a localized collection of neuron cell bodies that are functionally related; a “center” of neural function
glial cell type in the CNS that provides the myelin insulation for axons in tracts
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
anatomical division of the nervous system that is largely outside the cranial and vertebral cavities, namely all parts except the brain and spinal cord
postsynaptic potential (PSP)
graded potential in the postsynaptic membrane caused by the binding of neurotransmitter to protein receptors
precentral gyrus of the frontal cortex
region of the cerebral cortex responsible for generating motor commands, where the upper motor neuron cell body is located
in cells, an extension of a cell body; in the case of neurons, this includes the axon and dendrites
movement of an action potential along the length of an axon
receptor potential
graded potential in a specialized sensory cell that directly causes the release of neurotransmitter without an intervening action potential
refractory period
time after the initiation of an action potential when another action potential cannot be generated
relative refractory period
time during the refractory period when a new action potential can only be initiated by a stronger stimulus than the current action potential because voltage-gated K+ channels are not closed
return of the membrane potential to its normally negative voltage at the end of the action potential
property of an axon that relates to the ability of particles to diffuse through the cytoplasm; this is inversely proportional to the fiber diameter
nervous system function that causes a target tissue (muscle or gland) to produce an event as a consequence to stimuli
resting membrane potential
the difference in voltage measured across a cell membrane under steady-state conditions, typically -70 mV
saltatory conduction
quick propagation of the action potential along a myelinated axon owing to voltage-gated Na+ channels being present only at the nodes of Ranvier
satellite cell
glial cell type in the PNS that provides support for neurons in the ganglia
Schwann cell
glial cell type in the PNS that provides the myelin insulation for axons in nerves
nervous system function that receives information from the environment and translates it into the electrical signals of nervous tissue
size exclusion
principle of selectively allowing ions through a channel on the basis of their relative size
in neurons, that portion of the cell that contains the nucleus; the cell body, as opposed to the cell processes (axons and dendrites)
somatic nervous system (SNS)
functional division of the nervous system that is concerned with conscious perception, voluntary movement, and skeletal muscle reflexes
spatial summation
combination of graded potentials across the neuronal cell membrane caused by signals from separate presynaptic elements that add up to initiate an action potential
spinal cord
organ of the central nervous system found within the vertebral cavity and connected with the periphery through spinal nerves; mediates reflex behaviors
an event in the external or internal environment that registers as activity in a sensory neuron
to add together, as in the cumulative change in postsynaptic potentials toward reaching threshold in the membrane, either across a span of the membrane or over a certain amount of time
narrow junction across which a chemical signal passes from neuron to the next, initiating a new electrical signal in the target cell
synaptic cleft
small gap between cells in a chemical synapse where neurotransmitter diffuses from the presynaptic element to the postsynaptic element
synaptic end bulb
swelling at the end of an axon where neurotransmitter molecules are released onto a target cell across a synapse
temporal summation
combination of graded potentials at the same location on a neuron resulting in a strong signal from one input
region of the central nervous system that acts as a relay for sensory pathways
type of sensory receptor capable of transducing temperature stimuli into neural action potentials
membrane voltage at which an action potential is initiated
bundle of axons in the central nervous system having the same function and point of origin
shape of a neuron which has only one process that includes both the axon and dendrite
upper motor neuron
first neuron in the motor command pathway with its cell body in the cerebral cortex that synapses on the lower motor neuron in the spinal cord
central cavity within the brain where CSF is produced and circulates
voltage-gated channel
ion channel that opens because of a change in the charge distributed across the membrane where it is located
white matter
regions of the nervous system containing mostly myelinated axons, making the tissue appear white because of the high lipid content of myelin
Nội dung này đang được cập nhật.
Dưới đây là các bài văn nằm ở bên trái. Ở bên phải là các bài luyện tập (practice) để đánh giá khả năng đọc hiểu của bạn. Sẽ khó khăn trong thời gian đầu nếu vốn từ vựng của bạn còn hạn chế, đặc biệt là từ vựng Y khoa. Hãy kiên nhẫn và đọc nhiều nhất có kể, lượng kiến thức tích tụ dần sẽ giúp bạn đọc thoải mái hơn.
The picture you have in your mind of the nervous system probably includes the brain, the nervous tissue contained within the cranium, and the spinal cord, the extension of nervous tissue within the vertebral column. That suggests it is made of two organs—and you may not even think of the spinal cord as an organ—but the nervous system is a very complex structure. Within the brain, many different and separate regions are responsible for many different and separate functions. It is as if the nervous system is composed of many organs that all look similar and can only be differentiated using tools such as the microscope or electrophysiology. In comparison, it is easy to see that the stomach is different than the esophagus or the liver, so you can imagine the digestive system as a collection of specific organs.
The nervous system can be divided into two major regions: the central and peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system (CNS) is the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is everything else (Figure 1). The brain is contained within the cranial cavity of the skull, and the spinal cord is contained within the vertebral cavity of the vertebral column. It is a bit of an oversimplification to say that the CNS is what is inside these two cavities and the peripheral nervous system is outside of them, but that is one way to start to think about it. In actuality, there are some elements of the peripheral nervous system that are within the cranial or vertebral cavities. The peripheral nervous system is so named because it is on the periphery—meaning beyond the brain and spinal cord. Depending on different aspects of the nervous system, the dividing line between central and peripheral is not necessarily universal.

Nervous tissue, present in both the CNS and PNS, contains two basic types of cells: neurons and glial cells. A glial cell is one of a variety of cells that provide a framework of tissue that supports the neurons and their activities. The neuron is the more functionally important of the two, in terms of the communicative function of the nervous system. To describe the functional divisions of the nervous system, it is important to understand the structure of a neuron. Neurons are cells and therefore have a soma, or cell body, but they also have extensions of the cell; each extension is generally referred to as a process. There is one important process that every neuron has called an axon, which is the fiber that connects a neuron with its target. Another type of process that branches off from the soma is the dendrite. Dendrites are responsible for receiving most of the input from other neurons. Looking at nervous tissue, there are regions that predominantly contain cell bodies and regions that are largely composed of just axons. These two regions within nervous system structures are often referred to as gray matter (the regions with many cell bodies and dendrites) or white matter (the regions with many axons). Figure 2 demonstrates the appearance of these regions in the brain and spinal cord. The colors ascribed to these regions are what would be seen in “fresh,” or unstained, nervous tissue. Gray matter is not necessarily gray. It can be pinkish because of blood content, or even slightly tan, depending on how long the tissue has been preserved. But white matter is white because axons are insulated by a lipid-rich substance called myelin. Lipids can appear as white (“fatty”) material, much like the fat on a raw piece of chicken or beef. Actually, gray matter may have that color ascribed to it because next to the white matter, it is just darker—hence, gray.

The distinction between gray matter and white matter is most often applied to central nervous tissue, which has large regions that can be seen with the unaided eye. When looking at peripheral structures, often a microscope is used and the tissue is stained with artificial colors. That is not to say that central nervous tissue cannot be stained and viewed under a microscope, but unstained tissue is most likely from the CNS—for example, a frontal section of the brain or cross section of the spinal cord.

Regardless of the appearance of stained or unstained tissue, the cell bodies of neurons or axons can be located in discrete anatomical structures that need to be named. Those names are specific to whether the structure is central or peripheral. A localized collection of neuron cell bodies in the CNS is referred to as a nucleus. In the PNS, a cluster of neuron cell bodies is referred to as a ganglion. Figure 3 indicates how the term nucleus has a few different meanings within anatomy and physiology. It is the center of an atom, where protons and neutrons are found; it is the center of a cell, where the DNA is found; and it is a center of some function in the CNS. There is also a potentially confusing use of the word ganglion (plural = ganglia) that has a historical explanation. In the central nervous system, there is a group of nuclei that are connected together and were once called the basal ganglia before “ganglion” became accepted as a description for a peripheral structure. Some sources refer to this group of nuclei as the “basal nuclei” to avoid confusion.

Terminology applied to bundles of axons also differs depending on location. A bundle of axons, or fibers, found in the CNS is called a tract whereas the same thing in the PNS would be called a nerve. There is an important point to make about these terms, which is that they can both be used to refer to the same bundle of axons. When those axons are in the PNS, the term is nerve, but if they are CNS, the term is tract. The most obvious example of this is the axons that project from the retina into the brain. Those axons are called the optic nerve as they leave the eye, but when they are inside the cranium, they are referred to as the optic tract. There is a specific place where the name changes, which is the optic chiasm, but they are still the same axons (Figure 4). A similar situation outside of science can be described for some roads. Imagine a road called “Broad Street” in a town called “Anyville.” The road leaves Anyville and goes to the next town over, called “Hometown.” When the road crosses the line between the two towns and is in Hometown, its name changes to “Main Street.” That is the idea behind the naming of the retinal axons. In the PNS, they are called the optic nerve, and in the CNS, they are the optic tract. Table 1 helps to clarify which of these terms apply to the central or peripheral nervous systems.
The nervous system can also be divided on the basis of its functions, but anatomical divisions and functional divisions are different. The CNS and the PNS both contribute to the same functions, but those functions can be attributed to different regions of the brain (such as the cerebral cortex or the hypothalamus) or to different ganglia in the periphery. The problem with trying to fit functional differences into anatomical divisions is that sometimes the same structure can be part of several functions. For example, the optic nerve carries signals from the retina that are either used for the conscious perception of visual stimuli, which takes place in the cerebral cortex, or for the reflexive responses of smooth muscle tissue that are processed through the hypothalamus.

There are two ways to consider how the nervous system is divided functionally. First, the basic functions of the nervous system are sensation, integration, and response. Secondly, control of the body can be somatic or autonomic—divisions that are largely defined by the structures that are involved in the response. There is also a region of the peripheral nervous system that is called the enteric nervous system that is responsible for a specific set of the functions within the realm of autonomic control related to gastrointestinal functions.

A. Basic Functions

The nervous system is involved in receiving information about the environment around us (sensation) and generating responses to that information (motor responses). The nervous system can be divided into regions that are responsible for sensation (sensory functions) and for the response (motor functions). But there is a third function that needs to be included. Sensory input needs to be integrated with other sensations, as well as with memories, emotional state, or learning (cognition). Some regions of the nervous system are termed integration or association areas. The process of integration combines sensory perceptions and higher cognitive functions such as memories, learning, and emotion to produce a response.

Sensation. The first major function of the nervous system is sensation—receiving information about the environment to gain input about what is happening outside the body (or, sometimes, within the body). The sensory functions of the nervous system register the presence of a change from homeostasis or a particular event in the environment, known as a stimulus. The senses we think of most are the “big five”: taste, smell, touch, sight, and hearing. The stimuli for taste and smell are both chemical substances (molecules, compounds, ions, etc.), touch is physical or mechanical stimuli that interact with the skin, sight is light stimuli, and hearing is the perception of sound, which is a physical stimulus similar to some aspects of touch. There are actually more senses than just those, but that list represents the major senses. Those five are all senses that receive stimuli from the outside world, and of which there is conscious perception. Additional sensory stimuli might be from the internal environment (inside the body), such as the stretch of an organ wall or the concentration of certain ions in the blood.

Response. The nervous system produces a response on the basis of the stimuli perceived by sensory structures. An obvious response would be the movement of muscles, such as withdrawing a hand from a hot stove, but there are broader uses of the term. The nervous system can cause the contraction of all three types of muscle tissue. For example, skeletal muscle contracts to move the skeleton, cardiac muscle is influenced as heart rate increases during exercise, and smooth muscle contracts as the digestive system moves food along the digestive tract. Responses also include the neural control of glands in the body as well, such as the production and secretion of sweat by the eccrine and merocrine sweat glands found in the skin to lower body temperature.

Responses can be divided into those that are voluntary or conscious (contraction of skeletal muscle) and those that are involuntary (contraction of smooth muscles, regulation of cardiac muscle, activation of glands). Voluntary responses are governed by the somatic nervous system and involuntary responses are governed by the autonomic nervous system, which are discussed in the next section.

Integration. Stimuli that are received by sensory structures are communicated to the nervous system where that information is processed. This is called integration. Stimuli are compared with, or integrated with, other stimuli, memories of previous stimuli, or the state of a person at a particular time. This leads to the specific response that will be generated. Seeing a baseball pitched to a batter will not automatically cause the batter to swing. The trajectory of the ball and its speed will need to be considered. Maybe the count is three balls and one strike, and the batter wants to let this pitch go by in the hope of getting a walk to first base. Or maybe the batter’s team is so far ahead, it would be fun to just swing away.

B. Controlling the Body

The nervous system can be divided into two parts mostly on the basis of a functional difference in responses. The somatic nervous system (SNS) is responsible for conscious perception and voluntary motor responses. Voluntary motor response means the contraction of skeletal muscle, but those contractions are not always voluntary in the sense that you have to want to perform them. Some somatic motor responses are reflexes, and often happen without a conscious decision to perform them. If your friend jumps out from behind a corner and yells “Boo!” you will be startled and you might scream or leap back. You didn’t decide to do that, and you may not have wanted to give your friend a reason to laugh at your expense, but it is a reflex involving skeletal muscle contractions. Other motor responses become automatic (in other words, unconscious) as a person learns motor skills (referred to as “habit learning” or “procedural memory”).

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is responsible for involuntary control of the body, usually for the sake of homeostasis (regulation of the internal environment). Sensory input for autonomic functions can be from sensory structures tuned to external or internal environmental stimuli. The motor output extends to smooth and cardiac muscle as well as glandular tissue. The role of the autonomic system is to regulate the organ systems of the body, which usually means to control homeostasis. Sweat glands, for example, are controlled by the autonomic system. When you are hot, sweating helps cool your body down. That is a homeostatic mechanism. But when you are nervous, you might start sweating also. That is not homeostatic, it is the physiological response to an emotional state.

There is another division of the nervous system that describes functional responses. The enteric nervous system (ENS) is responsible for controlling the smooth muscle and glandular tissue in your digestive system. It is a large part of the PNS, and is not dependent on the CNS. It is sometimes valid, however, to consider the enteric system to be a part of the autonomic system because the neural structures that make up the enteric system are a component of the autonomic output that regulates digestion. There are some differences between the two, but for our purposes here there will be a good bit of overlap. See Figure 5 for examples of where these divisions of the nervous system can be found.

OpenStax. (2022). Anatomy and Physiology 2e. Rice University. Retrieved June 15, 2023. ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-06-7 (Hardcover) ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-05-0 (Paperback) ISBN-13: 978-1-951693-42-8 (Digital). License: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Access for free at

The structures of the PNS are referred to as ganglia and nerves, which can be seen as distinct structures. The equivalent structures in the CNS are not obvious from this overall perspective and are best examined in prepared tissue under the microscope.

A brain removed during an autopsy, with a partial section removed, shows white matter surrounded by gray matter. Gray matter makes up the outer cortex of the brain. (credit: modification of work by “Suseno”/Wikimedia Commons)

(a) The nucleus of an atom contains its protons and neutrons. (b) The nucleus of a cell is the organelle that contains DNA. (c) A nucleus in the CNS is a localized center of function with the cell bodies of several neurons, shown here circled in red. (credit c: “Was a bee”/Wikimedia Commons)

This drawing of the connections of the eye to the brain shows the optic nerve extending from the eye to the chiasm, where the structure continues as the optic tract. The same axons extend from the eye to the brain through these two bundles of fibers, but the chiasm represents the border between peripheral and central.

Group of Neuron Cell Bodies (i.e., gray matter)NucleusGanglion
Bundle of Axons (i.e., white matter)TractNerve

Somatic structures include the spinal nerves, both motor and sensory fibers, as well as the sensory ganglia (posterior root ganglia and cranial nerve ganglia). Autonomic structures are found in the nerves also, but include the sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia. The enteric nervous system includes the nervous tissue within the organs of the digestive tract.

Nội dung này đang được cập nhật.
Dưới đây là video và các luyện tập (practice) của bài này. Nghe là một kĩ năng khó, đặc biệt là khi chúng ta chưa quen nội dung và chưa có nhạy cảm ngôn ngữ. Nhưng cứ đi thật chậm và đừng bỏ cuộc.
Xem video và cảm nhận nội dung bài. Bạn có thể thả trôi, cảm nhận dòng chảy ngôn ngữ và không nhất thiết phải hiểu toàn bộ bài. Bên dưới là script để bạn khái quát nội dụng và tra từ mới.
  1. The nervous system can be separated into divisions on the basis of anatomy and physiology.
  2. The anatomical divisions are the central and peripheral nervous systems.
  3. The central nervous systems is the brain and spinal cord.
  4. The peripheral nervous systems is everything else.
  5. Functionally, the nervous system can be divided into those regions that are responsible for sensation, those that are responsible for integration, and those that are responsible for generating responses.
  6. All of these functional areas are found in both the central and peripheral anatomy.
  7. Considering the anatomical regions of the nervous system, there are specific names for the structures within each division.
  8. A localized collection of neuron cell bodies is referred to as a nucleus in the central nervous systems and as a ganglion in the peripheral nervous systems.
  9. A bundle of axons is referred to as a tract in the central nervous systems and as a nerve in the peripheral nervous systems.
  10. Whereas nuclei and ganglia are specifically in the central or peripheral divisions, axons can cross the boundary between the two.
  11. A single axon can be part of a nerve and a tract.
  12. The name for that specific structure depends on its location.
  13. Nervous tissue can also be described as gray matter and white matter on the basis of its appearance in unstained tissue.
  14. These descriptions are more often used in the central nervous systems.
  15. Gray matter is where nuclei are found and white matter is where tracts are found.
  16. In the peripheral nervous systems, ganglia are basically gray matter and nerves are white matter.
  17. The nervous system can also be divided on the basis of how it controls the body.
  18. The somatic nervous system is responsible for functions that result in moving skeletal muscles.
  19. Any sensory or integrative functions that result in the movement of skeletal muscle would be considered somatic.
  20. The autonomic nervous system is responsible for functions that affect cardiac or smooth muscle tissue, or that cause glands to produce their secretions.
  21. Autonomic functions are distributed between central and peripheral regions of the nervous system.
  22. The sensations that lead to autonomic functions can be the same sensations that are part of initiating somatic responses.
  23. Somatic and autonomic integrative functions may overlap as well.
  24. A special division of the nervous system is the enteric nervous system, which is responsible for controlling the digestive organs.
  25. Parts of the autonomic nervous system overlap with the enteric nervous system.
  26. The enteric nervous system is exclusively found in the periphery because it is the nervous tissue in the organs of the digestive system.
Bật video, nghe và điền từ vào chỗ trống.
Dưới đây là phần bàn luận. Bạn có thể tự do đặt câu hỏi, bổ sung kiến thức, và chia sẻ trải nghiệm của mình.
Notify of

Inline Feedbacks
View all comments

Ấn vào ô bên dưới để đánh dấu bạn đã hoàn thành bài học này

Quá dữ! Tiếp tục duy trì phong độ nhé!