Module 28: Development and Inheritance

Lesson 6: Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages

Thay Đổi Của Trẻ Sơ Sinh Khi Sinh và Giai Đoạn Sau Sinh

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Mỗi bài học (lesson) bao gồm 4 phần chính: Thuật ngữ, Luyện Đọc, Luyện Nghe, và Bàn Luận.
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Dưới đây là danh sách những thuật ngữ Y khoa của module Development and Inheritance.
Khái quát được số lượng thuật ngữ sẽ xuất hiện trong bài đọc và nghe sẽ giúp bạn thoải mái tiêu thụ nội dung hơn. Sau khi hoàn thành nội dung đọc và nghe, bạn hãy quay lại đây và luyện tập (practice) để quen dần các thuật ngữ này. Đừng ép bản thân phải nhớ các thuật ngữ này vội vì bạn sẽ gặp và ôn lại danh sách này trong những bài học (lesson) khác của cùng một module.

Medical Terminology: Development and Inheritance

acrosomal reaction
release of digestive enzymes by sperm that enables them to burrow through the corona radiata and penetrate the zona pellucida of an oocyte prior to fertilization
cap-like vesicle located at the anterior-most region of a sperm that is rich with lysosomal enzymes capable of digesting the protective layers surrounding the oocyte
third stage of childbirth in which the placenta and associated fetal membranes are expelled
finger-like outpocketing of yolk sac forms the primitive excretory duct of the embryo; precursor to the urinary bladder
alternative forms of a gene that occupy a specific locus on a specific gene
transparent membranous sac that encloses the developing fetus and fills with amniotic fluid
amniotic cavity
cavity that opens up between the inner cell mass and the trophoblast; develops into amnion
autosomal chromosome
in humans, the 22 pairs of chromosomes that are not the sex chromosomes (XX or XY)
autosomal dominant
pattern of dominant inheritance that corresponds to a gene on one of the 22 autosomal chromosomes
autosomal recessive
pattern of recessive inheritance that corresponds to a gene on one of the 22 autosomal chromosomes
fluid-filled cavity of the blastocyst
term for the conceptus at the developmental stage that consists of about 100 cells shaped into an inner cell mass that is fated to become the embryo and an outer trophoblast that is fated to become the associated fetal membranes and placenta
daughter cell of a cleavage
Braxton Hicks contractions
weak and irregular peristaltic contractions that can occur in the second and third trimesters; they do not indicate that childbirth is imminent
brown adipose tissue
highly vascularized fat tissue that is packed with mitochondria; these properties confer the ability to oxidize fatty acids to generate heat
process that occurs in the female reproductive tract in which sperm are prepared for fertilization; leads to increased motility and changes in their outer membrane that improve their ability to release enzymes capable of digesting an oocyte’s outer layers
heterozygous individual who does not display symptoms of a recessive genetic disorder but can transmit the disorder to their offspring
membrane that develops from the syncytiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast, and mesoderm; surrounds the embryo and forms the fetal portion of the placenta through the chorionic villi
chorionic membrane
precursor to the chorion; forms from extra-embryonic mesoderm cells
chorionic villi
projections of the chorionic membrane that burrow into the endometrium and develop into the placenta
form of mitotic cell division in which the cell divides but the total volume remains unchanged; this process serves to produce smaller and smaller cells
pattern of inheritance that corresponds to the equal, distinct, and simultaneous expression of two different alleles
thick, yellowish substance secreted from a mother’s breasts in the first postpartum days; rich in immunoglobulins
pre-implantation stage of a fertilized egg and its associated membranes
corona radiata
in an oocyte, a layer of granulosa cells that surrounds the oocyte and that must be penetrated by sperm before fertilization can occur
cortical reaction
following fertilization, the release of cortical granules from the oocyte’s plasma membrane into the zona pellucida creating a fertilization membrane that prevents any further attachment or penetration of sperm; part of the slow block to polyspermy
first stage of childbirth, involving an increase in cervical diameter
describes a trait that is expressed both in homozygous and heterozygous form
dominant lethal
inheritance pattern in which individuals with one or two copies of a lethal allele do not survive in utero or have a shortened life span
ductus arteriosus
shunt in the pulmonary trunk that diverts oxygenated blood back to the aorta
ductus venosus
shunt that causes oxygenated blood to bypass the fetal liver on its way to the inferior vena cava
primary germ layer that develops into the central and peripheral nervous systems, sensory organs, epidermis, hair, and nails
ectopic pregnancy
implantation of an embryo outside of the uterus
developing human during weeks 3–8
embryonic folding
process by which an embryo develops from a flat disc of cells to a three-dimensional shape resembling a cylinder
primary germ layer that goes on to form the gastrointestinal tract, liver, pancreas, and lungs
upper layer of cells of the embryonic disc that forms from the inner cell mass; gives rise to all three germ layers
incision made in the posterior vaginal wall and perineum that facilitates vaginal birth
second stage of childbirth, during which the mother bears down with contractions; this stage ends in birth
unification of genetic material from male and female haploid gametes
fertilization membrane
impenetrable barrier that coats a nascent zygote; part of the slow block to polyspermy
developing human during the time from the end of the embryonic period (week 9) to birth
foramen ovale
shunt that directly connects the right and left atria and helps divert oxygenated blood from the fetal pulmonary circuit
watery, translucent breast milk that is secreted first during a feeding and is rich in lactose and protein; quenches the infant’s thirst
process of cell migration and differentiation into three primary germ layers following cleavage and implantation
complete genetic makeup of an individual
in human development, the period required for embryonic and fetal development in utero; pregnancy
having two different alleles for a given gene
opaque, creamy breast milk delivered toward the end of a feeding; rich in fat; satisfies the infant’s appetite
having two identical alleles for a given gene
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
hormone that directs the corpus luteum to survive, enlarge, and continue producing progesterone and estrogen to suppress menses and secure an environment suitable for the developing embryo
lower layer of cells of the embryonic disc that extend into the blastocoel to form the yolk sac
process by which a blastocyst embeds itself in the uterine endometrium
incomplete dominance
pattern of inheritance in which a heterozygous genotype expresses a phenotype intermediate between dominant and recessive phenotypes
inner cell mass
cluster of cells within the blastocyst that is fated to become the embryo
postpartum shrinkage of the uterus back to its pre-pregnancy volume
systematic arrangement of images of chromosomes into homologous pairs
process by which milk is synthesized and secreted from the mammary glands of the postpartum female breast in response to sucking at the nipple
silk-like hairs that coat the fetus; shed later in fetal development
let-down reflex
release of milk from the alveoli triggered by infant suckling
descent of the fetus lower into the pelvis in late pregnancy; also called “dropping”
postpartum vaginal discharge that begins as blood and ends as a whitish discharge; the end of lochia signals that the site of placental attachment has healed
fetal wastes consisting of ingested amniotic fluid, cellular debris, mucus, and bile
primary germ layer that becomes the skeleton, muscles, connective tissue, heart, blood vessels, and kidneys
tightly packed sphere of blastomeres that has reached the uterus but has not yet implanted itself
change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
neural fold
elevated edge of the neural groove
neural plate
thickened layer of neuroepithelium that runs longitudinally along the dorsal surface of an embryo and gives rise to nervous system tissue
neural tube
precursor to structures of the central nervous system, formed by the invagination and separation of neuroepithelium
embryonic process that establishes the central nervous system
nonshivering thermogenesis
process of breaking down brown adipose tissue to produce heat in the absence of a shivering response
rod-shaped, mesoderm-derived structure that provides support for growing fetus
development of the rudimentary structures of all of an embryo’s organs from the germ layers
physical or biochemical manifestation of the genotype; expression of the alleles
organ that forms during pregnancy to nourish the developing fetus; also regulates waste and gas exchange between mother and fetus
placenta previa
low placement of fetus within uterus causes placenta to partially or completely cover the opening of the cervix as it grows
formation of the placenta; complete by weeks 14–16 of pregnancy
penetration of an oocyte by more than one sperm
primitive streak
indentation along the dorsal surface of the epiblast through which cells migrate to form the endoderm and mesoderm during gastrulation
pituitary hormone that establishes and maintains the supply of breast milk; also important for the mobilization of maternal micronutrients for breast milk
Punnett square
grid used to display all possible combinations of alleles transmitted by parents to offspring and predict the mathematical probability of offspring inheriting a given genotype
fetal movements that are strong enough to be felt by the mother
describes a trait that is only expressed in homozygous form and is masked in heterozygous form
recessive lethal
inheritance pattern in which individuals with two copies of a lethal allele do not survive in utero or have a shortened life span
sex chromosomes
pair of chromosomes involved in sex determination; in males, the XY chromosomes; in females, the XX chromosomes
circulatory shortcut that diverts the flow of blood from one region to another
one of the paired, repeating blocks of tissue located on either side of the notochord in the early embryo
superficial cells of the trophoblast that fuse to form a multinucleated body that digests endometrial cells to firmly secure the blastocyst to the uterine wall
variation of an expressed characteristic
division of the duration of a pregnancy into three 3-month terms
fluid-filled shell of squamous cells destined to become the chorionic villi, placenta, and associated fetal membranes
true labor
regular contractions that immediately precede childbirth; they do not abate with hydration or rest, and they become more frequent and powerful with time
umbilical cord
connection between the developing conceptus and the placenta; carries deoxygenated blood and wastes from the fetus and returns nutrients and oxygen from the mother
vernix caseosa
waxy, cheese-like substance that protects the delicate fetal skin until birth
pattern of inheritance in which an allele is carried on the X chromosome of the 23rd pair
X-linked dominant
pattern of dominant inheritance that corresponds to a gene on the X chromosome of the 23rd pair
X-linked recessive
pattern of recessive inheritance that corresponds to a gene on the X chromosome of the 23rd pair
yolk sac
membrane associated with primitive circulation to the developing embryo; source of the first blood cells and germ cells and contributes to the umbilical cord structure
zona pellucida
thick, gel-like glycoprotein membrane that coats the oocyte and must be penetrated by sperm before fertilization can occur
fertilized egg; a diploid cell resulting from the fertilization of haploid gametes from the male and female lines
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Dưới đây là các bài văn nằm ở bên trái. Ở bên phải là các bài luyện tập (practice) để đánh giá khả năng đọc hiểu của bạn. Sẽ khó khăn trong thời gian đầu nếu vốn từ vựng của bạn còn hạn chế, đặc biệt là từ vựng Y khoa. Hãy kiên nhẫn và đọc nhiều nhất có kể, lượng kiến thức tích tụ dần sẽ giúp bạn đọc thoải mái hơn.
From a fetal perspective, the process of birth is a crisis. In the womb, the fetus was snuggled in a soft, warm, dark, and quiet world. The placenta provided nutrition and oxygen continuously. Suddenly, the contractions of labor and vaginal childbirth forcibly squeeze the fetus through the birth canal, limiting oxygenated blood flow during contractions and shifting the skull bones to accommodate the small space. After birth, the newborn’s system must make drastic adjustments to a world that is colder, brighter, and louder, and where they will experience hunger and thirst. The neonatal period (neo- = “new”; -natal = “birth”) spans the first to the thirtieth day of life outside of the uterus.
Although the fetus “practices” breathing by inhaling amniotic fluid in utero, there is no air in the uterus and thus no true opportunity to breathe. (There is also no need to breathe because the placenta supplies the fetus with all the oxygenated blood it needs.) During gestation, the partially collapsed lungs are filled with amniotic fluid and exhibit very little metabolic activity. Several factors stimulate newborns to take their first breath at birth. First, labor contractions temporarily constrict umbilical blood vessels, reducing oxygenated blood flow to the fetus and elevating carbon dioxide levels in the blood. High carbon dioxide levels cause acidosis and stimulate the respiratory center in the brain, triggering the newborn to take a breath.

The first breath typically is taken within 10 seconds of birth, after mucus is aspirated from the infant’s mouth and nose. The first breaths inflate the lungs to nearly full capacity and dramatically decrease lung pressure and resistance to blood flow, causing a major circulatory reconfiguration. Pulmonary alveoli open, and alveolar capillaries fill with blood. Amniotic fluid in the lungs drains or is absorbed, and the lungs immediately take over the task of the placenta, exchanging carbon dioxide for oxygen by the process of respiration.
The process of clamping and cutting the umbilical cord collapses the umbilical blood vessels. In the absence of medical assistance, this occlusion would occur naturally within 20 minutes of birth because the Wharton’s jelly within the umbilical cord would swell in response to the lower temperature outside of the mother’s body, and the blood vessels would constrict. Natural occlusion has occurred when the umbilical cord is no longer pulsating. For the most part, the collapsed vessels atrophy and become fibrotic remnants, existing in the mature circulatory system as ligaments of the abdominal wall and liver. The ductus venosus degenerates to become the ligamentum venosum beneath the liver. Only the proximal sections of the two umbilical arteries remain functional, taking on the role of supplying blood to the upper part of the bladder (Figure 28.22).

The newborn’s first breath is vital to initiate the transition from the fetal to the neonatal circulatory pattern. Inflation of the lungs decreases blood pressure throughout the pulmonary system, as well as in the right atrium and ventricle. In response to this pressure change, the flow of blood temporarily reverses direction through the foramen ovale, moving from the left to the right atrium, and blocking the shunt with two flaps of tissue. Within 1 year, the tissue flaps usually fuse over the shunt, turning the foramen ovale into the fossa ovalis. The ductus arteriosus constricts as a result of increased oxygen concentration, and becomes the ligamentum arteriosum. Closing of the ductus arteriosus ensures that all blood pumped to the pulmonary circuit will be oxygenated by the newly functional neonatal lungs.
The fetus floats in warm amniotic fluid that is maintained at a temperature of approximately 98.6°F with very little fluctuation. Birth exposes newborns to a cooler environment in which they have to regulate their own body temperature. Newborns have a higher ratio of surface area to volume than adults. This means that their body has less volume throughout which to produce heat, and more surface area from which to lose heat. As a result, newborns produce heat more slowly and lose it more quickly. Newborns also have immature musculature that limits their ability to generate heat by shivering. Moreover, their nervous systems are underdeveloped, so they cannot quickly constrict superficial blood vessels in response to cold. They also have little subcutaneous fat for insulation. All these factors make it harder for newborns to maintain their body temperature.

Newborns, however, do have a special method for generating heat: nonshivering thermogenesis, which involves the breakdown of brown adipose tissue, or brown fat, which is distributed over the back, chest, and shoulders. Brown fat differs from the more familiar white fat in two ways:

  • It is highly vascularized. This allows for faster delivery of oxygen, which leads to faster cellular respiration.
  • It is packed with a special type of mitochondria that are able to engage in cellular respiration reactions that produce less ATP and more heat than standard cellular respiration reactions.

The breakdown of brown fat occurs automatically upon exposure to cold, so it is an important heat regulator in newborns. During fetal development, the placenta secretes inhibitors that prevent metabolism of brown adipose fat and promote its accumulation in preparation for birth.
Adjustments In adults, the gastrointestinal tract harbors bacterial flora—trillions of bacteria that aid in digestion, produce vitamins, and protect from the invasion or replication of pathogens. In stark contrast, the fetal intestine is sterile. The first consumption of breast milk or formula floods the neonatal gastrointestinal tract with beneficial bacteria that begin to establish the bacterial flora.

The fetal kidneys filter blood and produce urine, but the neonatal kidneys are still immature and inefficient at concentrating urine. Therefore, newborns produce very dilute urine, making it particularly important for infants to obtain sufficient fluids from breast milk or formula.

OpenStax. (2022). Anatomy and Physiology 2e. Rice University. Retrieved June 15, 2023. ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-06-7 (Hardcover) ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-05-0 (Paperback) ISBN-13: 978-1-951693-42-8 (Digital). License: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Access for free at

A newborn’s circulatory system reconfigures immediately after birth. The three fetal shunts have been closed permanently, facilitating blood flow to the liver and lungs.

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  1. The first breath a newborn takes at birth inflates the lungs and dramatically alters the circulatory system, closing the three shunts that directed oxygenated blood away from the lungs and liver during fetal life.
  2. Clamping and cutting the umbilical cord collapses the three umbilical blood vessels.
  3. The proximal umbilical arteries remain a part of the circulatory system, whereas the distal umbilical arteries and the umbilical vein become fibrotic.
  4. The newborn keeps warm by breaking down brown adipose tissue in the process of nonshivering thermogenesis.
  5. The first consumption of breast milk or formula floods the newborn’s sterile gastrointestinal tract with beneficial bacteria.
  6. These bacteria eventually establish themselves as the bacterial flora, which aid in digestion.
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