Module 13: The Respiratory System

Lesson 6: Modifications in Respiratory Functions

Thay Đổi Chức Năng Hô Hấp

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Mỗi bài học (lesson) bao gồm 4 phần chính: Thuật ngữ, Luyện Đọc, Luyện Nghe, và Bàn Luận.
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Dưới đây là danh sách những thuật ngữ Y khoa của module The Respiratory System.
Khái quát được số lượng thuật ngữ sẽ xuất hiện trong bài đọc và nghe sẽ giúp bạn thoải mái tiêu thụ nội dung hơn. Sau khi hoàn thành nội dung đọc và nghe, bạn hãy quay lại đây và luyện tập (practice) để quen dần các thuật ngữ này. Đừng ép bản thân phải nhớ các thuật ngữ này vội vì bạn sẽ gặp và ôn lại danh sách này trong những bài học (lesson) khác của cùng một module.

Medical Terminology: The Respiratory System

process of adjustment that the respiratory system makes due to chronic exposure to high altitudes
acute mountain sickness (AMS)
condition that occurs a result of acute exposure to high altitude due to a low partial pressure of oxygen
(plural = alae) small, flaring structure of a nostril that forms the lateral side of the nares
alar cartilage
cartilage that supports the apex of the nose and helps shape the nares; it is connected to the septal cartilage and connective tissue of the alae
alveolar dead space
air space within alveoli that are unable to participate in gas exchange
alveolar duct
small tube that leads from the terminal bronchiole to the respiratory bronchiole and is the point of attachment for alveoli
alveolar macrophage
immune system cell of the alveolus that removes debris and pathogens
alveolar pore
opening that allows airflow between neighboring alveoli
alveolar sac
cluster of alveoli
small, grape-like sac that performs gas exchange in the lungs
anatomical dead space
air space present in the airway that never reaches the alveoli and therefore never participates in gas exchange
tip of the external nose
apneustic center
network of neurons within the pons that stimulate the neurons in the dorsal respiratory group; controls the depth of inspiration
atmospheric pressure
amount of force that is exerted by gases in the air surrounding any given surface
Bohr effect
relationship between blood pH and oxygen dissociation from hemoglobin
Boyle’s law
relationship between volume and pressure as described by the formula: P1V1 = P2V2
portion of the external nose that lies in the area of the nasal bones
bronchial bud
structure in the developing embryo that forms when the laryngotracheal bud extends and branches to form two bulbous structures
bronchial tree
collective name for the multiple branches of the bronchi and bronchioles of the respiratory system
branch of bronchi that are 1 mm or less in diameter and terminate at alveolar sacs
decrease in the size of the bronchiole due to relaxation of the muscular wall
increase in the size of the bronchiole due to contraction of the muscular wall
tube connected to the trachea that branches into many subsidiaries and provides a passageway for air to enter and leave the lungs
bound form of hemoglobin and carbon dioxide
carbonic anhydrase (CA)
enzyme that catalyzes the reaction that causes carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid
cardiac notch
indentation on the surface of the left lung that allows space for the heart
central chemoreceptor
one of the specialized receptors that are located in the brain that sense changes in hydrogen ion, oxygen, or carbon dioxide concentrations in the brain
chloride shift
facilitated diffusion that exchanges bicarbonate (HCO3–) with chloride (Cl–) ions
conducting zone
region of the respiratory system that includes the organs and structures that provide passageways for air and are not directly involved in gas exchange
cricoid cartilage
portion of the larynx composed of a ring of cartilage with a wide posterior region and a thinner anterior region; attached to the esophagus
Dalton’s law
statement of the principle that a specific gas type in a mixture exerts its own pressure, as if that specific gas type was not part of a mixture of gases
dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
region of the medulla oblongata that stimulates the contraction of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles to induce inspiration
dorsum nasi
intermediate portion of the external nose that connects the bridge to the apex and is supported by the nasal bone
leaf-shaped piece of elastic cartilage that is a portion of the larynx that swings to close the trachea during swallowing
(also, exhalation) process that causes the air to leave the lungs
expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal exhalation
external nose
region of the nose that is easily visible to others
external respiration
gas exchange that occurs in the alveoli
portion of the posterior oral cavity that connects the oral cavity to the oropharynx
fibroelastic membrane
specialized membrane that connects the ends of the C-shape cartilage in the trachea; contains smooth muscle fibers
forced breathing
(also, hyperpnea) mode of breathing that occurs during exercise or by active thought that requires muscle contraction for both inspiration and expiration
endoderm of the embryo towards the head region
functional residual capacity (FRC)
sum of ERV and RV, which is the amount of air that remains in the lungs after a tidal expiration
opening between the vocal folds through which air passes when producing speech
Haldane effect
relationship between the partial pressure of oxygen and the affinity of hemoglobin for carbon dioxide
Henry’s law
statement of the principle that the concentration of gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the solubility and partial pressure of that gas
concave structure on the mediastinal surface of the lungs where blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves, and a bronchus enter the lung
increased rate and depth of ventilation due to an increase in oxygen demand that does not significantly alter blood oxygen or carbon dioxide levels
increased ventilation rate that leads to abnormally low blood carbon dioxide levels and high (alkaline) blood pH
(also, inhalation) process that causes air to enter the lungs
inspiratory capacity (IC)
sum of the TV and IRV, which is the amount of air that can maximally be inhaled past a tidal expiration
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
amount of air that enters the lungs due to deep inhalation past the tidal volume
internal respiration
gas exchange that occurs at the level of body tissues
intra-alveolar pressure
(intrapulmonary pressure) pressure of the air within the alveoli
intrapleural pressure
pressure of the air within the pleural cavity
laryngeal prominence
region where the two lamine of the thyroid cartilage join, forming a protrusion known as “Adam’s apple”
portion of the pharynx bordered by the oropharynx superiorly and esophagus and trachea inferiorly; serves as a route for both air and food
bud forms from the lung bud, has a tracheal end and bulbous bronchial buds at the distal end
cartilaginous structure that produces the voice, prevents food and beverages from entering the trachea, and regulates the volume of air that enters and leaves the lungs
lingual tonsil
lymphoid tissue located at the base of the tongue
organ of the respiratory system that performs gas exchange
lung bud
median dome that forms from the endoderm of the foregut
one of three recesses (superior, middle, and inferior) in the nasal cavity attached to the conchae that increase the surface area of the nasal cavity
(plural = nares) opening of the nostrils
nasal bone
bone of the skull that lies under the root and bridge of the nose and is connected to the frontal and maxillary bones
nasal septum
wall composed of bone and cartilage that separates the left and right nasal cavities
portion of the pharynx flanked by the conchae and oropharynx that serves as an airway
olfactory pit
invaginated ectodermal tissue in the anterior portion of the head region of an embryo that will form the nasal cavity
portion of the pharynx flanked by the nasopharynx, oral cavity, and laryngopharynx that is a passageway for both air and food
oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve
graph that describes the relationship of partial pressure to the binding and disassociation of oxygen to and from heme
(Hb–O2) bound form of hemoglobin and oxygen
palatine tonsil
one of the paired structures composed of lymphoid tissue located anterior to the uvula at the roof of isthmus of the fauces
paranasal sinus
one of the cavities within the skull that is connected to the conchae that serve to warm and humidify incoming air, produce mucus, and lighten the weight of the skull; consists of frontal, maxillary, sphenoidal, and ethmoidal sinuses
parietal pleura
outermost layer of the pleura that connects to the thoracic wall, mediastinum, and diaphragm
partial pressure
force exerted by each gas in a mixture of gases
peripheral chemoreceptor
one of the specialized receptors located in the aortic arch and carotid arteries that sense changes in pH, carbon dioxide, or oxygen blood levels
pharyngeal tonsil
structure composed of lymphoid tissue located in the nasopharynx
region of the conducting zone that forms a tube of skeletal muscle lined with respiratory epithelium; located between the nasal conchae and the esophagus and trachea
concave surface of the face that connects the apex of the nose to the top lip
pleural cavity
space between the visceral and parietal pleurae
pleural fluid
substance that acts as a lubricant for the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura during the movement of breathing
pneumotaxic center
network of neurons within the pons that inhibit the activity of the neurons in the dorsal respiratory group; controls rate of breathing
pulmonary artery
artery that arises from the pulmonary trunk and carries deoxygenated, arterial blood to the alveoli
pulmonary plexus
network of autonomic nervous system fibers found near the hilum of the lung
pulmonary surfactant
substance composed of phospholipids and proteins that reduces the surface tension of the alveoli; made by type II alveolar cells
pulmonary ventilation
exchange of gases between the lungs and the atmosphere; breathing
quiet breathing
(also, eupnea) mode of breathing that occurs at rest and does not require the cognitive thought of the individual
residual volume (RV)
amount of air that remains in the lungs after maximum exhalation
respiratory bronchiole
specific type of bronchiole that leads to alveolar sacs
respiratory cycle
one sequence of inspiration and expiration
respiratory epithelium
ciliated lining of much of the conducting zone that is specialized to remove debris and pathogens, and produce mucus
respiratory membrane
alveolar and capillary wall together, which form an air-blood barrier that facilitates the simple diffusion of gases
respiratory rate
total number of breaths taken each minute
respiratory volume
varying amounts of air within the lung at a given time
respiratory zone
includes structures of the respiratory system that are directly involved in gas exchange
region of the external nose between the eyebrows
thoracic wall compliance
ability of the thoracic wall to stretch while under pressure
thyroid cartilage
largest piece of cartilage that makes up the larynx and consists of two lamine
tidal volume (TV)
amount of air that normally enters the lungs during quiet breathing
total dead space
sum of the anatomical dead space and alveolar dead space
total lung capacity (TLC)
total amount of air that can be held in the lungs; sum of TV, ERV, IRV, and RV
total pressure
sum of all the partial pressures of a gaseous mixture
tube composed of cartilaginous rings and supporting tissue that connects the lung bronchi and the larynx; provides a route for air to enter and exit the lung
trachealis muscle
smooth muscle located in the fibroelastic membrane of the trachea
transpulmonary pressure
pressure difference between the intrapleural and intra-alveolar pressures
true vocal cord
one of the pair of folded, white membranes that have a free inner edge that oscillates as air passes through to produce sound
type I alveolar cell
squamous epithelial cells that are the major cell type in the alveolar wall; highly permeable to gases
type II alveolar cell
cuboidal epithelial cells that are the minor cell type in the alveolar wall; secrete pulmonary surfactant
movement of air into and out of the lungs; consists of inspiration and expiration
ventral respiratory group (VRG)
region of the medulla oblongata that stimulates the contraction of the accessory muscles involved in respiration to induce forced inspiration and expiration
vestibular fold
part of the folded region of the glottis composed of mucous membrane; supports the epiglottis during swallowing
visceral pleura
innermost layer of the pleura that is superficial to the lungs and extends into the lung fissures
vital capacity (VC)
sum of TV, ERV, and IRV, which is all the volumes that participate in gas exchange
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Dưới đây là các bài văn nằm ở bên trái. Ở bên phải là các bài luyện tập (practice) để đánh giá khả năng đọc hiểu của bạn. Sẽ khó khăn trong thời gian đầu nếu vốn từ vựng của bạn còn hạn chế, đặc biệt là từ vựng Y khoa. Hãy kiên nhẫn và đọc nhiều nhất có kể, lượng kiến thức tích tụ dần sẽ giúp bạn đọc thoải mái hơn.
At rest, the respiratory system performs its functions at a constant, rhythmic pace, as regulated by the respiratory centers of the brain. At this pace, ventilation provides sufficient oxygen to all the tissues of the body. However, there are times that the respiratory system must alter the pace of its functions in order to accommodate the oxygen demands of the body.
Hyperpnea is an increased depth and rate of ventilation to meet an increase in oxygen demand as might be seen in exercise or disease, particularly diseases that target the respiratory or digestive tracts. This does not significantly alter blood oxygen or carbon dioxide levels, but merely increases the depth and rate of ventilation to meet the demand of the cells. In contrast, hyperventilation is an increased ventilation rate that is independent of the cellular oxygen needs and leads to abnormally low blood carbon dioxide levels and high (alkaline) blood pH.

Interestingly, exercise does not cause hyperpnea as one might think. Muscles that perform work during exercise do increase their demand for oxygen, stimulating an increase in ventilation. However, hyperpnea during exercise appears to occur before a drop in oxygen levels within the muscles can occur. Therefore, hyperpnea must be driven by other mechanisms, either instead of or in addition to a drop in oxygen levels. The exact mechanisms behind exercise hyperpnea are not well understood, and some hypotheses are somewhat controversial. However, in addition to low oxygen, high carbon dioxide, and low pH levels, there appears to be a complex interplay of factors related to the nervous system and the respiratory centers of the brain.

First, a conscious decision to partake in exercise, or another form of physical exertion, results in a psychological stimulus that may trigger the respiratory centers of the brain to increase ventilation. In addition, the respiratory centers of the brain may be stimulated through the activation of motor neurons that innervate muscle groups that are involved in the physical activity. Finally, physical exertion stimulates proprioceptors, which are receptors located within the muscles, joints, and tendons, which sense movement and stretching; proprioceptors thus create a stimulus that may also trigger the respiratory centers of the brain. These neural factors are consistent with the sudden increase in ventilation that is observed immediately as exercise begins. Because the respiratory centers are stimulated by psychological, motor neuron, and proprioceptor inputs throughout exercise, the fact that there is also a sudden decrease in ventilation immediately after the exercise ends when these neural stimuli cease, further supports the idea that they are involved in triggering the changes of ventilation.
An increase in altitude results in a decrease in atmospheric pressure. Although the proportion of oxygen relative to gases in the atmosphere remains at 21 percent, its partial pressure decreases (Table 1). As a result, it is more difficult for a body to achieve the same level of oxygen saturation at high altitude than at low altitude, due to lower atmospheric pressure. In fact, hemoglobin saturation is lower at high altitudes compared to hemoglobin saturation at sea level. For example, hemoglobin saturation is about 67 percent at 19,000 feet above sea level, whereas it reaches about 98 percent at sea level.

As you recall, partial pressure is extremely important in determining how much gas can cross the respiratory membrane and enter the blood of the pulmonary capillaries. A lower partial pressure of oxygen means that there is a smaller difference in partial pressures between the alveoli and the blood, so less oxygen crosses the respiratory membrane. As a result, fewer oxygen molecules are bound by hemoglobin. Despite this, the tissues of the body still receive a sufficient amount of oxygen during rest at high altitudes. This is due to two major mechanisms. First, the number of oxygen molecules that enter the tissue from the blood is nearly equal between sea level and high altitudes. At sea level, hemoglobin saturation is higher, but only a quarter of the oxygen molecules are actually released into the tissue. At high altitudes, a greater proportion of molecules of oxygen are released into the tissues. Secondly, at high altitudes, a greater amount of BPG is produced by erythrocytes, which enhances the dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin. Physical exertion, such as skiing or hiking, can lead to altitude sickness due to the low amount of oxygen reserves in the blood at high altitudes. At sea level, there is a large amount of oxygen reserve in venous blood (even though venous blood is thought of as “deoxygenated”) from which the muscles can draw during physical exertion. Because the oxygen saturation is much lower at higher altitudes, this venous reserve is small, resulting in pathological symptoms of low blood oxygen levels. You may have heard that it is important to drink more water when traveling at higher altitudes than you are accustomed to. This is because your body will increase micturition (urination) at high altitudes to counteract the effects of lower oxygen levels. By removing fluids, blood plasma levels drop but not the total number of erythrocytes. In this way, the overall concentration of erythrocytes in the blood increases, which helps tissues obtain the oxygen they need.

Acute Mountain Sickness and Acclimatization

Acute mountain sickness (AMS), or altitude sickness, is a condition that results from acute exposure to high altitudes due to a low partial pressure of oxygen at high altitudes. AMS typically can occur at 2400 meters (8000 feet) above sea level. AMS is a result of low blood oxygen levels, as the body has acute difficulty adjusting to the low partial pressure of oxygen. In serious cases, AMS can cause pulmonary or cerebral edema. Symptoms of AMS include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, lightheadedness, drowsiness, feeling disoriented, increased pulse, and nosebleeds. The only treatment for AMS is descending to a lower altitude; however, pharmacologic treatments and supplemental oxygen can improve symptoms. AMS can be prevented by slowly ascending to the desired altitude, allowing the body to acclimate, as well as maintaining proper hydration.

On the other hand, acclimatization is the process of adjustment that the respiratory system makes due to chronic exposure to a high altitude. Over a period of time, the body adjusts to accommodate the lower partial pressure of oxygen. The low partial pressure of oxygen at high altitudes results in a lower oxygen saturation level of hemoglobin in the blood. In turn, the tissue levels of oxygen are also lower. As a result, the kidneys are stimulated to produce the hormone erythropoietin (EPO), which stimulates the production of erythrocytes, resulting in a greater number of circulating erythrocytes in an individual at a high altitude over a long period. With more red blood cells, there is more hemoglobin to help transport the available oxygen. Even though there is low saturation of each hemoglobin molecule, there will be more hemoglobin present, and therefore more oxygen in the blood. Over time, this allows the person to partake in physical exertion without developing AMS.

OpenStax. (2022). Anatomy and Physiology 2e. Rice University. Retrieved June 15, 2023. ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-06-7 (Hardcover) ISBN-13: 978-1-711494-05-0 (Paperback) ISBN-13: 978-1-951693-42-8 (Digital). License: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Access for free at

Example locationAltitude (feet above sea level)Atmospheric pressure (mm Hg)Partial pressure of oxygen (mm Hg)
New York City, New York0760159
Boulder, Colorado5000632133
Aspen, Colorado8000565118
Pike’s Peak, Colorado14,00044794
Denali (Mt. McKinley), Alaska20,00035073
Mt. Everest, Tibet29,00026054
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Dưới đây là video và các luyện tập (practice) của bài này. Nghe là một kĩ năng khó, đặc biệt là khi chúng ta chưa quen nội dung và chưa có nhạy cảm ngôn ngữ. Nhưng cứ đi thật chậm và đừng bỏ cuộc.
Xem video và cảm nhận nội dung bài. Bạn có thể thả trôi, cảm nhận dòng chảy ngôn ngữ và không nhất thiết phải hiểu toàn bộ bài. Bên dưới là script để bạn khái quát nội dụng và tra từ mới.
  1. Normally, the respiratory centers of the brain maintain a consistent, rhythmic breathing cycle.
  2. However, in certain cases, the respiratory system must adjust to situational changes in order to supply the body with sufficient oxygen.
  3. For example, exercise results in increased ventilation, and chronic exposure to a high altitude results in a greater number of circulating erythrocytes.
  4. Hyperpnea involves an increase in the rate and depth of ventilation.
  5. It appears to be a function of three neural mechanisms that include a psychological stimulus, motor neuron activation of skeletal muscles, and the activation of proprioceptors in the muscles, joints, and tendons.
  6. As a result, hyperpnea related to exercise is initiated when exercise begins, as opposed to when tissue oxygen demand actually increases.
  7. In contrast, acute exposure to a high altitude, particularly during times of physical exertion, does result in low blood and tissue levels of oxygen.
  8. This change is caused by a low partial pressure of oxygen in the air, because the atmospheric pressure at high altitudes is lower than the atmospheric pressure at sea level.
  9. This can lead to a condition called acute mountain sickness (or AMS) with symptoms that include headaches, disorientation, fatigue, nausea, and lightheadedness.
  10. Over a long period of time, a person’s body will adjust to the high altitude, a process called acclimatization.
  11. During acclimatization, the low tissue levels of oxygen will cause the kidneys to produce greater amounts of the hormone erythropoietin, which stimulates the production of erythrocytes.
  12. Increased levels of circulating erythrocytes provide an increased amount of hemoglobin that helps supply an individual with more oxygen, preventing the symptoms of AMS.
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